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Modelling the Relationship between Whole Sale Price and Consumer Price Indices: Cointegration and Causality Analysis for India


  • Aviral Kumar Tiwari

    (Aviral Kumar Tiwari is Research scholar and Faculty of Applied Economics, Faculty of Management, ICFAI University, Tripura. E-mail:

  • Muhammad Shahbaz

    (Muhammad Shahbaz is with the Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore, Pakistan. E-mail:


The study attempts to analyze the static and dynamic causality between producers’ prices measured by wholesale price index (WPI) and consumers’ prices measured by consumers’ price index (CPI) in case of India. In doing so, we have applied the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach to co-integration and robustness of the ARDL approach which is examined by Johansen and Juselius’ (1990) maximum likelihood approach over the time period of 1950–2009. We found bidirectional causality between producers’ and consumers’ prices in Indian economy. Variance decomposition (VD) forecast analysis reveals that in India, producers’ prices lead consumers’ prices. This implies that WPI is determined by market forces and also a leading indicator of consumers’ prices and inflation. This gives an indication to the Indian policy analysts to control for factors affecting WPI in order to have control on CPI since CPI is used for indexation purposes for many wage and salary earners including government employees and hence it will be helpful in cutting down the excess government expenditure.

Suggested Citation

  • Aviral Kumar Tiwari & Muhammad Shahbaz, 2013. "Modelling the Relationship between Whole Sale Price and Consumer Price Indices: Cointegration and Causality Analysis for India," Global Business Review, International Management Institute, vol. 14(3), pages 397-411, September.
  • Handle: RePEc:sae:globus:v:14:y:2013:i:3:p:397-411

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Colclough, William G. & Lange, Mark D., 1982. "Empirical evidence of causality from consumer to wholesale prices," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 19(2-3), pages 379-384, August.
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    5. José Julián Sidaoui & Carlos Capistrán & Daniel Chiquiar & Manuel Ramos Francia, 2009. "A Note on the Predictive Content of PPI over CPI Inflation: The Case of Mexico," Working Papers 2009-14, Banco de México.
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    9. Dickey, David A & Fuller, Wayne A, 1981. "Likelihood Ratio Statistics for Autoregressive Time Series with a Unit Root," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 49(4), pages 1057-1072, June.
    10. repec:wsi:serxxx:v:55:y:2010:i:03:n:s0217590810003882 is not listed on IDEAS
    11. Serena Ng & Pierre Perron, 2001. "LAG Length Selection and the Construction of Unit Root Tests with Good Size and Power," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 69(6), pages 1519-1554, November.
    12. Todd E. Clark, 1995. "Do producer prices lead consumer prices?," Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, issue Q III, pages 25-39.
    13. Guglielmo Maria Caporale & Margarita Katsimi & Nikitas Pittis, 2002. "Causality Links between Consumer and Producer Prices: Some Empirical Evidence," Southern Economic Journal, Southern Economic Association, vol. 68(3), pages 703-711, January.
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    Cited by:

    1. Phouphet Kyophilavong & Muhammad Shahbaz & Gazi Salah Uddin, 2015. "A Note on Nominal and Real Devaluation in Laos," Global Business Review, International Management Institute, vol. 16(2), pages 236-243, April.
    2. Amjad Ali & Nooreen Mujahid & Yahya Rashid & Muhammad Shahbaz, 2015. "Human Capital Outflow and Economic Misery: Fresh Evidence for Pakistan," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 124(3), pages 747-764, December.
    3. Wang, Minggang & Tian, Lixin & Xu, Hua & Li, Weiyu & Du, Ruijin & Dong, Gaogao & Wang, Jie & Gu, Jiani, 2017. "Systemic risk and spatiotemporal dynamics of the consumer market of China," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 473(C), pages 188-204.
    4. Mujahid, Noureen & Muhammad Shahbaz, Shabbir & Shahbaz, Muhammad, 2014. "Labor Market Conditions-Female Labor Supply Nexus: The Role of Globalization in Pakistan," MPRA Paper 57179, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 07 Jul 2014.
    5. repec:ipg:wpaper:2014-584 is not listed on IDEAS

    More about this item


    CPI and WPI; Granger causality; cointegration VDs; IRFs;

    JEL classification:

    • C32 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Time-Series Models; Dynamic Quantile Regressions; Dynamic Treatment Effect Models; Diffusion Processes; State Space Models
    • E31 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles - - - Price Level; Inflation; Deflation


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