IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/
MyIDEAS: Log in (now much improved!) to save this article

Evaluating The Use Of Personal Connections To Bypass Formal Procedures: A Study Of Vrski In Republic Of Macedonia

Listed author(s):
  • C. Williams, Colin

    ()

    (Sheffield University Management School (SUMS), University of Sheffield, Sheffield, U.K.)

  • Bezeredi, Slavko

    (Institute of Public Finance, Zagreb, Croatia)

The soliciting of personal favours for and from others in order to circumvent formal procedures is a common practice across the world, variously known as guanxi, wasta, blat, and jeitinho. Until now, however, there have been no known empirical studies of this practice in South-East Europe. This paper fills that gap. The aim is to evaluate the extent to which personal connections are used to circumvent formal procedures, and who engages in such practices in FYR Macedonia. Reporting data collected from 2,014 face-to-face interviews undertaken in late 2015, the finding is that 35 per cent of respondents had used vrski during the year prior to the survey, particularly to gain access to health services and find a job. Using logistic regression analysis, the population groups significantly more likely to have used vrski are found to be younger people, higher income groups, those who also both supply and purchase undeclared work, live in rural areas or villages, while those in the Eastern, Southeastern and Pelagoni regions are less likely to do so than those in the Vardar region. The paper concludes by discussing the theoretical and policy implications along with the future research required.

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

File URL: http://utmsjoe.mk/files/Vol.%208%20No.%202/UTMSJOE-2017-0802-11-Villiams-Bezerdi.pdf
File Function: Full text
Download Restriction: no

Article provided by University of Tourism and Management, Skopje, Macedonia in its journal UTMS Journal of Economics.

Volume (Year): 8 (2017)
Issue (Month): 2 ()
Pages: 169-182

as
in new window

Handle: RePEc:ris:utmsje:0208
Contact details of provider: Web page: http://www.utms.edu.mk/

More information through EDIRC

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

as
in new window


  1. Jar-Der Luo, 2011. "Guanxi Revisited: An Exploratory Study of Familiar Ties in a Chinese Workplace," Management and Organization Review, The International Association for Chinese Management Research, vol. 7(2), pages 329-351, 07.
  2. Barnett, Andy & Yandle, Bruce & Naufal, George, 2013. "Regulation, trust, and cronyism in Middle Eastern societies: The simple economics of “wasta”," Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics (formerly The Journal of Socio-Economics), Elsevier, vol. 44(C), pages 41-46.
  3. Gordeev, Vladimir S. & Pavlova, Milena & Groot, Wim, 2014. "Informal payments for health care services in Russia: old issue in new realities," Health Economics, Policy and Law, Cambridge University Press, vol. 9(01), pages 25-48, January.
  4. Michailova, Snejina & Worm, Verner, 2003. "Personal Networking in Russia and China:: Blat and Guanxi," European Management Journal, Elsevier, vol. 21(4), pages 509-519, August.
  5. Shou, Zhigang & Chen, Jun & Zhu, Wenting & Yang, Lihua, 2014. "Firm capability and performance in China: The moderating role of guanxi and institutional forces in domestic and foreign contexts," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 67(2), pages 77-82.
  6. Ying Chen & Ray Friedman & Enhai Yu & Fubin Sun, 2011. "Examining the positive and negative effects of guanxi practices: A multi-level analysis of guanxi practices and procedural justice perceptions," Asia Pacific Journal of Management, Springer, vol. 28(4), pages 715-735, December.
  7. Kaitelidou, Daphne Ch. & Tsirona, Christina S. & Galanis, Petros A. & Siskou, Olga Ch. & Mladovsky, Philipa & Kouli, Eugenia G. & Prezerakos, Panagiotis E. & Theodorou, Mamas & Sourtzi, Panagiota A. &, 2013. "Informal payments for maternity health services in public hospitals in Greece," Health Policy, Elsevier, vol. 109(1), pages 23-30.
  8. Colin WILLIAMS & Ioana HORODNIC & Adrian HORODNIC, 2016. "Who is making informal payments for public healthcare in East-Central Europe? An evaluation of socio-economic and spatial variations," Eastern Journal of European Studies, Centre for European Studies, Alexandru Ioan Cuza University, vol. 7, pages 49-61, June.
  9. Luo, Jar-Der, 2011. "Guanxi Revisited: An Exploratory Study of Familiar Ties in a Chinese Workplace," Management and Organization Review, Cambridge University Press, vol. 7(02), pages 329-351, July.
  10. Bingyuan Hsiung, 2013. "Guanxi: Personal connections in Chinese society," Journal of Bioeconomics, Springer, vol. 15(1), pages 17-40, April.
  11. Williams Colin C. & Franic Josip, 2015. "Tackling the Propensity towards Undeclared Work: Some Policy Lessons from Croatia," South East European Journal of Economics and Business, De Gruyter Open, vol. 10(1), pages 18-31, April.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ris:utmsje:0208. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Prof. Zoran Ivanovic, PhD)

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.