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Impôt négatif, salaire minimum et chômage dans un modèle d’appariement avec différenciation des agents

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  • Lages Dos Santos, Pedro

    (CERENE, Université du Havre)

Abstract

This article is part of a larger analysis of the reform of the French social benefit system. It studies a measure thought to improve the situation of the poorest while favoring an “incentive to work” effect, i.e. the Negative Income Tax. We study more acutely the coexistence of this instrument of economic policy with a minimum wage. We use a matching model à la Marimon and Zilibotti (1999) based on an explicit horizontal differentiation of workers and jobs. We show that the introduction of a minimum wage improves matching between workers and jobs, making “bad” matches unrealizable. Thus, the labor market is more efficient and the Negative Income Tax reduces inequalities and poverty. However, the policy looses its “incentive to work” effect. Cet article s’inscrit dans une réflexion assez large sur la refonte du système de prestations sociales français. Il s’intéresse en effet à l’une des mesures évoquées afin d’améliorer la situation des plus démunis tout en favorisant un effet « prime à l’emploi », à savoir l’impôt négatif. Nous analysons plus particulièrement la coexistence d’un tel instrument de politique économique avec une législation relative à un revenu minimum. Pour cela, nous utilisons comme cadre d’analyse un modèle d’appariement à la Marimon et Zilibotti (1999) qui repose sur une différenciation explicite des travailleurs et des emplois. L’introduction d’un salaire minimum a pour effet d’améliorer l’adéquation entre les travailleurs et les emplois en rendant les « mauvais » appariements impossibles. Cependant, le gain en termes d’efficacité du marché du travail s’obtient aux dépens de l’effet « prime à l’emploi » de la politique envisagée, mais sans réduire les effets positifs en termes de lutte contre les inégalités et la pauvreté.

Suggested Citation

  • Lages Dos Santos, Pedro, 2008. "Impôt négatif, salaire minimum et chômage dans un modèle d’appariement avec différenciation des agents," L'Actualité Economique, Société Canadienne de Science Economique, vol. 84(1), pages 47-70, mars.
  • Handle: RePEc:ris:actuec:v:84:y:2008:i:1:p:47-70
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Card, David & Krueger, Alan B, 1994. "Minimum Wages and Employment: A Case Study of the Fast-Food Industry in New Jersey and Pennsylvania," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 84(4), pages 772-793, September.
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    7. Steven C. Salop, 1979. "Monopolistic Competition with Outside Goods," Bell Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 10(1), pages 141-156, Spring.
    8. Lang, Kevin & Kahn, Shulamit, 1998. "The effect of minimum-wage laws on the distribution of employment: theory and evidence," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 69(1), pages 67-82, July.
    9. Christopher A. Pissarides, 2000. "Equilibrium Unemployment Theory, 2nd Edition," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262161877, January.
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