A die-hard aristocracy: competitive balance in Italian soccer, 1929-2009
We will present two measures of the competitive balance in professional Italian soccer, one based on the a club's historical rankings and one based on points scored per season. We will calculate and illustrate their characteristics for the Italian first division (the Serie A) between 1929 and 2009. Using the cumulated rankings of the 60 clubs which have taken part in the Serie A we show that Italian soccer is strongly characterized by a self-reinforcing mechanism of dominance that has created an aristocracy of at most ten strong clubs. We also show that increasing the number of promoted clubs could have an innovative impact. Our results imply that each season is fiercely fought, and this level of competition could be further increased with a smaller number of clubs, given an appropriate turnover of promoted clubs. However, a policy of this kind would introduce a dilemma between the desire to foster a season's competitive balance and the reduction in the number of matches –a clear source of revenue. We'll look at one feature of the new sharing rule on television revenue still waiting more extensive empirical research. Our results cast some doubt on the weight given to historical competitive balance in the introduction of the sharing rule effective as of season 2010-11. The relevance given to a club’s history does not contrast with the extant aristocracy and so giving seasonal competitive balance more space within the sharing rule may hamper the bigger clubs' dominance. 1. Motivation and research question - 2. Literature review - 3. The database - 4. Two Herfindahl indexes to measure competitive balance - 5. A self-reinforcing mechanism? - 6. The innovative push from newly-promoted clubs - 7. Conclusions
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Luca Rebeggiani & Davide Tondani, 2006. "Efficienza ed equilibrio competitivo nell’organizzazione del ciclismo professionistico internazionale," Rivista di Diritto ed Economia dello Sport, Centro di diritto e business dello Sport, vol. 2(3), pages 101-122, Dicembre.
- Allen R. Sanderson & John J. Siegfried, 2003.
"Thinking about Competitive Balance,"
Journal of Sports Economics,
, vol. 4(4), pages 255-279, November.
- Allen R. Sanderson & John J. Siegfried, 2003. "Thinking About Competitive Balance," Vanderbilt University Department of Economics Working Papers 0318, Vanderbilt University Department of Economics.
- Ruud Koning, 2009. "Sport and Measurement of Competition," De Economist, Springer, vol. 157(2), pages 229-249, June.
- Jeffery Borland, 2003. "Demand for Sport," Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Oxford University Press, vol. 19(4), pages 478-502, Winter.
- Alejandro Lopez-Feldman, 2006. "Decomposing inequality and obtaining marginal effects," Stata Journal, StataCorp LP, vol. 6(1), pages 106-111, March.
- Paul, Rodney J. & Weinbach, Andrew P., 2007. "The uncertainty of outcome and scoring effects on Nielsen ratings for Monday Night Football," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 59(3), pages 199-211.
- Stark, Oded & Taylor, J Edward & Yitzhaki, Shlomo, 1986. "Remittances and Inequality," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 96(383), pages 722-740, September.
- Roger G. Noll, 2007. "Broadcasting And Team Sports," Scottish Journal of Political Economy, Scottish Economic Society, vol. 54(3), pages 400-421, 07.
- Roger G. Noll, 2007. "Broadcasting and Team Sports," Discussion Papers 06-016, Stanford Institute for Economic Policy Research.
- Francesco Addesa, 2009. "Il Competitive Balance nel campionato italiano di Basket," Rivista di Diritto ed Economia dello Sport, Centro di diritto e business dello Sport, vol. 5(2), pages 87-109, Settembre.
- Ferda Halicioglu, 2006. "The impact of football point systems on the competitive balance: evidence from some european football leagues," Rivista di Diritto ed Economia dello Sport, Centro di diritto e business dello Sport, vol. 2(2), pages 67-76, Dicembre.
- HALICIOGLU, Ferda, 2006. "The impacts of football point systems on the competitive balance: evidence from some European footbal leagues," MPRA Paper 10798, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Raul Caruso & Ilaria Verri, 2009. "Competitive Balance dopo la sentenza Bosman: il caso della pallavolo in Italia," Rivista di Diritto ed Economia dello Sport, Centro di diritto e business dello Sport, vol. 5(1), pages 59-79, Maggio.
- Lief Brandes & Egon Franck, 2007. "Who Made Who – An Empirical Analysis of Competitive Balance in European Soccer Leagues," Eastern Economic Journal, Eastern Economic Association, vol. 33(3), pages 379-403, Summer.
- Leif Brandes & Egon Franck, 2005. "Who made Who? An Empirical Analysis of Competitive Balance in European Soccer Leagues," Working Papers 0004, University of Zurich, Center for Research in Sports Administration (CRSA), revised 2006.
- Loek Groot, 2005. "De-commercializzare il calcio europeo e salvaguardarne l'equilibrio competitivo: una proposta welfarista," Rivista di Diritto ed Economia dello Sport, Centro di diritto e business dello Sport, vol. 1(2), pages 63-91, Agosto.
- Loek Groot, 2005. "De-Commercializzare Il Calcio Europeo E Salvaguardarne L'Equilibrio Competitivo: Una Proposta Welfarista," Public Economics 0510012, EconWPA.
- El-Hodiri, Mohamed & Quirk, James, 1971. "An Economic Model of a Professional Sports League," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 79(6), pages 1302-1319, Nov.-Dec..
- Kelly Goossens, 2006. "Competitive Balance in European Football - Comparison by Adapting Measures: National Measure of Seasonal Imbalance and Top 3," IASE Conference Papers 0620, International Association of Sports Economists.
- Frederic Palomino and Luca Rigotti., 2000. "The Sport League's Dilemma: Competitive Balance versus Incentives to Win," Economics Working Papers E00-292, University of California at Berkeley.
- Palomino, F.A. & Rigotti, L., 2000. "The Sport League's Dilemma : Competitive Balance versus Incentives to Win," Discussion Paper 2000-109, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
- Frederic Palomino & Luca Rigotti, 2001. "The Sport League's Dilemma: Competitive Balance versus Incentives to Win," Industrial Organization 0012003, EconWPA.
- Palomino, Frederic & Rigotti, Luca, 2000. "The Sport League's Dilemma: Competitive Balance versus Incentives to Win," Department of Economics, Working Paper Series qt2w3284jj, Department of Economics, Institute for Business and Economic Research, UC Berkeley.
- Kelly Goossens, 2006. "Competitive balance in european football: comparison by adapting measures: national measure of seasonal imbalance and Top 3," Rivista di Diritto ed Economia dello Sport, Centro di diritto e business dello Sport, vol. 2(2), pages 77-122, Dicembre.
- Vrooman, John, 2000. "The Economics of American Sports Leagues," Scottish Journal of Political Economy, Scottish Economic Society, vol. 47(4), pages 364-398, September.
- Andrew Larsen & Aju J. Fenn & Erin Leanne Spenner, 2006. "The Impact of Free Agency and the Salary Cap on Competitive Balance in the National Football League," Journal of Sports Economics, , vol. 7(4), pages 374-390, November.
- Stefan Szymanski, 2003. "The Economic Design of Sporting Contests," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 41(4), pages 1137-1187, December.
- Sloane, Peter J, 1971. "The Economics of Professional Football: The Football Club as a Utility Maximiser," Scottish Journal of Political Economy, Scottish Economic Society, vol. 18(2), pages 121-146, June. Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:rde:rivdes:201002dibetta_amenta. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Raul Caruso)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.