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Who Made Who – An Empirical Analysis of Competitive Balance in European Soccer Leagues

Author

Listed:
  • Lief Brandes

    () (University of Zurich)

  • Egon Franck

    (University of Zurich)

Abstract

There is an on-going debate about the optimal degree of team solidarity in professional European soccer leagues. Support for a high degree of team solidarity has been coming from the theory of competitive balance, which states that diminished uncertainty of outcome will result in reduced attendance demand. Based on seasonal average match attendance and different measures of competitive balance for several soccer leagues in Europe, this paper presents empirical evidence from vector autoregressive models and Granger causality tests. The results clearly show the existence of heterogeneity across different leagues and for tiers within a league.

Suggested Citation

  • Lief Brandes & Egon Franck, 2007. "Who Made Who – An Empirical Analysis of Competitive Balance in European Soccer Leagues," Eastern Economic Journal, Eastern Economic Association, vol. 33(3), pages 379-403, Summer.
  • Handle: RePEc:eej:eeconj:v:33:y:2007:i:3:p:379-403
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    File URL: http://web.holycross.edu/RePEc/eej/Archive/Volume33/V33N3P379_403.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Jeffery Borland, 2003. "Demand for Sport," Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Oxford University Press, vol. 19(4), pages 478-502, Winter.
    2. Stephen Hall & Stefan Szymanski & Andrew S. Zimbalist, 2002. "Testing Causality Between Team Performance and Payroll," Journal of Sports Economics, , vol. 3(2), pages 149-168, May.
    3. Haan, Marco & Koning, Ruud H. & Witteloostuijn, Arjen van, 2002. "Market forces in European soccer," CCSO Working Papers 200211, University of Groningen, CCSO Centre for Economic Research.
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    6. S. Illeris & G. Akehurst, 2001. "Introduction," The Service Industries Journal, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 21(1), pages 1-4, January.
    7. El-Hodiri, Mohamed & Quirk, James, 1971. "An Economic Model of a Professional Sports League," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 79(6), pages 1302-1319, Nov.-Dec..
    8. Helmut Dietl & Egon Franck & Patrick, 2003. "Überinvestitionsprobleme in einer Sportliga," Working Papers 0020, University of Zurich, Institute for Strategy and Business Economics (ISU).
    9. Stefan Szymanski, 2003. "The Economic Design of Sporting Contests," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 41(4), pages 1137-1187, December.
    10. Georg Stadtmann & Dirk Czarnitzki, 2002. "Uncertainty of outcome versus reputation: Empirical evidence for the First German Football Division," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 27(1), pages 101-112.
    11. S. M. Dobson & J. A. Goddard, 1998. "Performance and revenue in professional league football: evidence from Granger causality tests," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 30(12), pages 1641-1651.
    12. Babatunde Buraimo & David Forrest & Robert Simmons, 2007. "Freedom of Entry, Market Size, and Competitive Outcome: Evidence from English Soccer," Southern Economic Journal, Southern Economic Association, vol. 74(1), pages 204-213, July.
    13. Brad R. Humphreys, 2002. "Alternative Measures of Competitive Balance in Sports Leagues," Journal of Sports Economics, , vol. 3(2), pages 133-148, May.
    14. repec:dgr:rugsom:02f18 is not listed on IDEAS
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Raul Caruso & Marco Di Domizio, 2012. "Hooliganism and demand for football in Italy. Evidence for the period 1962-2011," DISCE - Quaderni dell'Istituto di Politica Economica ispe0062, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Dipartimenti e Istituti di Scienze Economiche (DISCE).
    2. Franck Egon & Theiler Philipp, 2012. "One for Sure or Maybe Three: Empirical Evidence for Overtime Play from a Comparison of Swiss Ice Hockey and the NHL," Journal of Economics and Statistics (Jahrbuecher fuer Nationaloekonomie und Statistik), De Gruyter, vol. 232(3), pages 210-223, June.
    3. Liam J.A. Lenten, 2011. "Long-run Trends and Factors in Attendance Patterns in Sport: Australian Football League, 1945–2009," Chapters,in: Handbook on the Economics of Leisure, chapter 17 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    4. Karanfil, Fatih, 2017. "An empirical analysis of European football rivalries based on on-field performances," Sport Management Review, Elsevier, vol. 20(5), pages 468-482.
    5. P. Dorian Owen, 2010. "Measuring Parity in Sports Leagues with Draws: Further Comments," Working Papers 1005, University of Otago, Department of Economics, revised Jul 2010.
    6. Dorian Owen, 2014. "Measurement of competitive balance and uncertainty of outcome," Chapters,in: Handbook on the Economics of Professional Football, chapter 3, pages 41-59 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    7. repec:ucm:padeur:v:26:y:2013:i:1:p:26-45 is not listed on IDEAS
    8. Raul Caruso, 2008. "Il calcio tra mercato, relazioni e coercizione," Rivista di Diritto ed Economia dello Sport, Centro di diritto e business dello Sport, vol. 4(1), pages 71-88, Aprile.
    9. Paolo Di Betta & Carlo Amenta, 2010. "A die-hard aristocracy: competitive balance in Italian soccer, 1929-2009," Rivista di Diritto ed Economia dello Sport, Centro di diritto e business dello Sport, vol. 6(2), pages 13-40, Settembre.
    10. Dorian Owen & Caitlin Owen, 2017. "Simulation Evidence on Herfindahl-Hirschman Indices as Measures of Competitive Balance," Working Papers 1715, University of Otago, Department of Economics, revised Dec 2017.
    11. Raul Caruso & Marco Di Domizio, 2012. "Domanda Di Calcio E Violenza Negli Stadi: Un’Analisi Panel Sulla Serie A," Rivista di Diritto ed Economia dello Sport, Centro di diritto e business dello Sport, vol. 8(2), pages 41-66, settembre.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • C13 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General - - - Estimation: General
    • C32 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Time-Series Models; Dynamic Quantile Regressions; Dynamic Treatment Effect Models; Diffusion Processes; State Space Models
    • L83 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Services - - - Sports; Gambling; Restaurants; Recreation; Tourism

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