Freedom of Entry, Market Size, and Competitive Outcome: Evidence from English Soccer
A primary prediction of the theory of sports leagues is that teams with higher revenues will have higher league positions or winning percentages than teams with smaller revenues. Behind this prediction lies the key influence of market size, yet this has been underexplored in the empirical literature on sports leagues. This paper combines detailed census of population data with panel data on team performance for an open sports league, the English Football League, to test the hypothesis that market size matters for team performance. We find a particularly important role for population close to the team's location. The impact of local population is reduced but not eliminated when allowance is made for entry in the form of competition from neighboring clubs. We assess implications of these findings for both European and North American sports league structures.
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Volume (Year): 74 (2007)
Issue (Month): 1 (July)
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- Martin B. Schmidt & David J. Berri, 2001. "Competitive Balance and Attendance: The Case of Major League Baseball," Journal of Sports Economics, , vol. 2(2), pages 145-167, May.
- John Goddard & Peter J. Sloane, 2005. "Economics of sport," Chapters, in: Economics Uncut, chapter 12 Edward Elgar Publishing.
- Stefan Szymanski, 2000. "A Market Test for Discrimination in the English Professional Soccer Leagues," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 108(3), pages 590-603, June.
- Forrest, David & Simmons, Robert & Feehan, Patrick, 2002. "A Spatial Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Elasticity of Demand for Soccer," Scottish Journal of Political Economy, Scottish Economic Society, vol. 49(3), pages 336-355, August.