Who made Who? An Empirical Analysis of Competitive Balance in European Soccer Leagues
There is an on-going debate about the optimal degree of team solidarity in professional European soccer leagues. Support for a high degree of team solidarity has been coming from the theory of competitive balance. Within this theory, attendance has always been referred to as the endogenous variable, stating that diminished uncertainty of outcome will result in a lack of attendance demand. This paper takes a new approach towards the relation between competitive balance and attendance demand. First, we show why this relationship might be reversed. Based on seasonal average match attendance and different measures of competitive balance for several soccer leagues in Europe, this paper then presents results using vector autoregressive models and Granger causality tests. Regarding the analyzed relationship, our results clearly show the existence of heterogeneity across different leagues and for tiers within a league.
To our knowledge, this item is not available for
download. To find whether it is available, there are three
1. Check below under "Related research" whether another version of this item is available online.
2. Check on the provider's web page whether it is in fact available.
3. Perform a search for a similarly titled item that would be available.
|Date of creation:||2005|
|Date of revision:||2006|
|Publication status:||Published in: Eastern Economic Journal 2007, Vol. 33, No. 3, pp. 379-403.|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: Plattenstrasse 14, CH-8032 Zürich|
Phone: ++41 1 634 29 27
Fax: ++41 1 634 43 48
Web page: http://www.crsa.uzh.ch
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Jeffery Borland, 2003. "Demand for Sport," Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Oxford University Press, vol. 19(4), pages 478-502, Winter.
- Stephen Hall & Stefan Szymanski & Andrew S. Zimbalist, 2002. "Testing the Causality between Team Performance and Payroll: The Cases of Major League Baseball and English Soccer," Journal of Sports Economics, , vol. 3(2), pages 149-168, May.
- Haan, Marco & Koning, Ruud H. & Witteloostuijn, Arjen van, 2002.
"Market forces in European soccer,"
CCSO Working Papers
200211, University of Groningen, CCSO Centre for Economic Research.
- Haan, Marco & Koning, Ruud H. & Witteloostuijn, Arjen van, 2002. "Market forces in European soccer," Research Report 02F18, University of Groningen, Research Institute SOM (Systems, Organisations and Management).
- repec:dgr:rugccs:200211 is not listed on IDEAS
- Scully, Gerald W., 1995. "The Market Structure of Sports," University of Chicago Press Economics Books, University of Chicago Press, edition 1, number 9780226743950.
- S. Illeris & G. Akehurst, 2001. "Introduction," The Service Industries Journal, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 21(1), pages 1-4, January.
- El-Hodiri, Mohamed & Quirk, James, 1971. "An Economic Model of a Professional Sports League," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 79(6), pages 1302-1319, Nov.-Dec..
- P. Dorian Owen & Clayton R. Weatherston, 2004. "Uncertainty of Outcome and Super 12 Rugby Union Attendance," Journal of Sports Economics, , vol. 5(4), pages 347-370, November.
- Helmut Dietl & Egon Franck & Patrick, 2003. "Überinvestitionsprobleme in einer Sportliga," Working Papers 0020, University of Zurich, Institute for Strategy and Business Economics (ISU).
- Stefan Szymanski, 2003. "The Economic Design of Sporting Contests," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 41(4), pages 1137-1187, December.
- Georg Stadtmann & Dirk Czarnitzki, 2002. "Uncertainty of outcome versus reputation: Empirical evidence for the First German Football Division," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 27(1), pages 101-112.
- Czarnitzki, Dirk & Stadtmann, Georg, 1999. "Uncertainty of outcome versus reputation: empirical evidence for the First German Football Division," ZEW Discussion Papers 99-46, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
- S. M. Dobson & J. A. Goddard, 1998. "Performance and revenue in professional league football: evidence from Granger causality tests," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 30(12), pages 1641-1651.
- Johansen, Soren, 1988. "Statistical analysis of cointegration vectors," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 12(2-3), pages 231-254.
- Babatunde Buraimo & David Forrest & Robert Simmons, 2007. "Freedom of Entry, Market Size, and Competitive Outcome: Evidence from English Soccer," Southern Economic Journal, Southern Economic Association, vol. 74(1), pages 204-213, July.
- D Forrest & R Simmons & B Buraimo, 2005. "Freedom of entry, market size and competitive outcome: evidence from English soccer," Working Papers 567322, Lancaster University Management School, Economics Department.
- Brad R. Humphreys, 2002. "Alternative Measures of Competitive Balance in Sports Leagues," Journal of Sports Economics, , vol. 3(2), pages 133-148, May.
- repec:dgr:rugsom:02f18 is not listed on IDEAS Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)