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Travail et pauvreté en Russie : évaluations objectives et perceptions subjectives

  • Ekaterina Kalugina
  • Boris Najman

[eng] Work and Poverty in Russia: Objective Evaluations and Subjective Perceptions The relationship between poverty and labour market participation in Russia is analysed using two poverty measurements: a monetary measurement in terms of an absolute threshold line and a subjective measurement based on poverty level self-assessments. The individual panel data used are taken from the RLMS survey (Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey) covering the period from 1994 to 2000. Status on the Russian labour market (official, unofficial or diversification) has to be considered to understand the risks of poverty to which those in employment are exposed. It is not enough to observe solely labour market participation (employment/ non-employment). One fundamental finding is that having a single declared job (official economy) increases the probability of being and feeling poor, as opposed to working in the unofficial economy. However, individuals with a number of jobs (diversification) have a lower probability of being or feeling poor. Wage-earning (official) employment is equated with the most precarious material situation in Russia today. [fre] Travail et pauvreté en Russie: évaluations objectives et perceptions subjectives La relation entre la pauvreté et la participation au marché du travail en Russie est analysée à l’aide de deux mesures de la pauvreté: une mesure monétaire en termes de seuil absolu et une mesure subjective selon l’autoévaluation du niveau de pauvreté. Les données individuelles de panel utilisées sont tirées de l’enquête RLMS (Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey) entre 1994 et 2000. Il est nécessaire de prendre en compte les statuts (formel, informel ou pluri-activité) sur le marché du travail russe afin de comprendre quels sont les risques de pauvreté auxquels font face les personnes ayant un emploi. Observer seulement la participation au marché du travail (emploi/ non-emploi) ne suffit pas. Un résultat essentiel est que le fait d’avoir un seul emploi déclaré (secteur formel) augmente la probabilité d’être et de se sentir pauvre relativement au fait de travailler dans le secteur informel. À l’opposé, les personnes ayant plusieurs activités ont la probabilité la plus faible d’être ou de se sentir pauvre. L’emploi salarié (formel) correspond à la situation matérielle la plus précaire aujourd’hui en Russie. [ger] Arbeit und Armut in Russland: objektive Bewertungen und subjektive Wahrnehmung Die Wechselwirkung zwischen Armut und Teilnahme am Arbeitsmarkt in Russland wird mit Hilfe zweier Armutsmessungen analysiert: einer monetären Messung in absoluten Schwellwerten und einer subjektiven Messung auf der Grundlage einer Eigenbewertung des Armutsniveaus. Die individuellen Paneldaten stammen aus der Erhebung RLMS (Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey), die zwischen 1994 und 2000 durchgeführt wurde. Zu berücksichtigen ist der Status (formeller, informeller Status oder mehrfache Tätigkeit) am russischen Arbeitsmarkt, um verstehen zu können, welchen Armutsrisiken die beschäftigen Menschen ausgesetzt sind. Denn es reicht nicht aus, lediglich die Teilnahme am Arbeitsmarkt (Beschäftigung/ Nichtbeschäftigung) zu beobachten. Ein wichtiges Ergebnis ist, dass eine einzige gemeldete Beschäftigung (formeller Sektor) die Wahrscheinlichkeit erhöht, im Vergleich zur Ausübung einer informellen Arbeit arm zu sein und sich arm zu fühlen. Dagegen ist bei den Menschen, die mehreren Tätigkeiten nachgehen, die Wahrscheinlichkeit geringer, arm zu sein und sich arm zu fühlen. In Russland stellt die (formelle) lohnabhängige Beschäftigung heute die prekärste materielle Situation dar. [spa] Trabajo y pobreza en Rusia: evaluaciones objetivas y percepciones subjetivas La relación entre la pobreza y la participación en el mercado laboral en Rusia se analiza mediante dos mediciones de la pobreza: una medición monetaria en términos de umbral absoluto y una medición subjetiva según la autoevaluación del nivel de pobreza. Los datos individuales de panel utilizados son sacados de la encuesta RLMS (Rusia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey) entre 1994 y 2000. Es necesario tomar en cuenta los estatutos (formal, informal o pluriactividad) sobre el mercado laboral ruso para llegar a comprender cuáles son los riesgos de pobreza con los que deben enfrentarse las personas que tienen un empleo. No basta con solo observar la participación en el mercado laboral (empleo/ desempleo). Un resultado esencial es el que tener un solo empleo declarado (sector formal) aumenta la probabilidad de ser y de sentirse pobre en comparación con la posibilidad de trabajar en el sector informal. Al contrario, las personas que tienen varias actividades tienen la menor probabilidad de ser o sentirse pobre. El empleo asalariado (formal) corresponde con la situación material más precaria hoy día en Rusia.

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Article provided by Programme National Persée in its journal Economie et statistique.

Volume (Year): 367 (2003)
Issue (Month): 1 ()
Pages: 83-100

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Handle: RePEc:prs:ecstat:estat_0336-1454_2003_num_367_1_7309
Note: DOI:10.3406/estat.2003.7309
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  1. Boeri, Tito, 2001. "Transition with Labour Supply," IZA Discussion Papers 257, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  2. Claudia Senik, 2002. "When Information Dominates Comparison: A Panel Data Analysis Using Russian Subjective Data," William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series 495, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.
  3. Ravallion, Martin & Lokshin, Michael, 2001. "Identifying Welfare Effects from Subjective Questions," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 68(271), pages 335-57, August.
  4. Gary Chamberlain, 1980. "Analysis of Covariance with Qualitative Data," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 47(1), pages 225-238.
  5. Klugman, Jeni & Braithwaite, Jeanine, 1998. "Poverty in Russia during the Transition: An Overview," World Bank Research Observer, World Bank Group, vol. 13(1), pages 37-58, February.
  6. Stephen P. Jenkins, 2000. "Modelling household income dynamics," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 13(4), pages 529-567.
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