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Le dualisme du marché du travail : enjeux et fondements théoriques

  • Hélène Zajdela

[eng] The Dualism of the Job Market: Issues and Theoretical Bases, . by Hélène Zajdela.. . Ever since the time of Doeringer and Piore's work, the segmentation of the work market has frequently been described in terms of two different sectors existing at the same time: a primary sectorwith high wages, job stability and opportunities for promotion, and asecondary sector with low wages, high risk of unemployment and no opportunities for promotion. This paper attempts to explain how recent theories about the job market, especially theories involving efficiency wages and wage negotiations, brought about a conceptual renewal in this field by giving reasons for rationing employment in the primary sector, wage differential between the two sectors and the persistance of unemployment. [spa] El dualismo del mercado de trabajo : lo que está en juego, fundamentos teóricos, . por Hélène Zajdela.. . A partir de los trabajos de Doeringer y Piore, la segmentación del mercado de trabajo se esquematiza con frecuencia por la coexistencia de dos sectores : un sector primario caracterizado por salarios elevados, la estabilidad del empleo y posibilidades de ascenso, y un sector secundario en donde los salarios son bajos, el riesgo de desocupación muy grande, y los ascensos inexistentes. Este artículo trata de explicar cómo las teorías recientes del mercado de trabajo, en particular las teorías del salario de eficiencia y de las negociaciones salariales, han suscitado un renovacion teórica en este campo, dando las bases al racionamiento del empleo en el sector primario, al diferencial de salario entre ambos sectores y a la persistencia de desempleo. [ger] Der Dualismus des Arbeitsmarktes : die theoretischen Grundlagen und die auf dem Spiel stehende theoretische Erneuerung, . von Hélène Zajdela.. . Seit den Studien von Doeringer und Piore wird die Arbeitsmarktsegmentation oft schematisch durch die Koexistenz von zwei Sektoren dargestellt : einem ersten Sektor, der durch hohe Löhne, stabile Arbeitsplätze und Aufstiegsmöglichkeiten gekennzeichnet ist, und einem zweiten, in dem die Löhne niedrig, das Risiko der Arbeitslosigkeit hoch und Aufstiegsmöglichkeiten nicht vorhanden sind. Dieser Artikel bemüht sich darum, zu erklären, wie die jüngsten Arbeitsmarkttheorien, insbesondere die den Leistungslohn und die Lohnverhandlungen betreffenden Theorien, eine theoretische Erneuerung in diesem Bereich bewirkt haben, indem sie die Begrenzung der Beschäftigungsgrösse im ersten Sektor, das Lohndifferential zwischen den beiden Sektoren und die anhaltende Arbeitslosigkeit von neuen Ansätzen aus erfassen. [fre] Le dualisme du marché du travail: enjeux et fondements théoriques, . par Hélène Zajdela.. . Depuis les travaux de Doeringer et Piore, la segmentation du marché du travail se schématise souvent par la coexistence de deux secteurs : un secteur primaire caractérisé par de hauts salaires, la stabilité de l'emploi et des possibilités de promotion, et un secteur secondaire où les salaires sont faibles, le risque de chômage important, et les promotions inexistantes. Cet article s'attache à expliquer comment les théories récentes du marché du travail, en particulier les théories du salaire d'efficience et des négociations salariales, ont suscité un renouveau théorique dans ce domaine, en donnant des fondements au rationnement de l'emploi dans le secteur primaire, au différentiel de salaire entre les deux secteurs et à la persistance du chômage.

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Article provided by Programme National Persée in its journal Économie & prévision.

Volume (Year): 92 (1990)
Issue (Month): 1 ()
Pages: 31-42

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Handle: RePEc:prs:ecoprv:ecop_0249-4744_1990_num_92_1_5155
Note: DOI:10.3406/ecop.1990.5155
Contact details of provider: Web page: http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/revue/ecop

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  12. Weiss, Andrew W, 1980. "Job Queues and Layoffs in Labor Markets with Flexible Wages," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 88(3), pages 526-38, June.
  13. Lindbeck, Assar & Snower, Dennis J, 1986. "Wage Setting, Unemployment, and Insider-Outsider Relations," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 76(2), pages 235-39, May.
  14. Lawrence F. Katz, 1986. "Efficiency Wage Theories: A Partial Evaluation," NBER Working Papers 1906, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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  22. Gottfries, Nils & Horn, Henrik, 1987. "Wage Formation and the Persistence of Unemployment," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 97(388), pages 877-84, December.
  23. Lawrence H. Summers, 1986. "Why is the Unemployment Rate So Very High near Full Employment," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 17(2), pages 339-396.
  24. Shapiro, Carl & Stiglitz, Joseph E, 1984. "Equilibrium Unemployment as a Worker Discipline Device," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 74(3), pages 433-44, June.
  25. Lindbeck, Assar & Snower, Dennis J., 1987. "Efficiency wages versus insiders and outsiders," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 31(1-2), pages 407-416.
  26. William T. Dickens & Kevin Lang, 1985. "Testing Dual Labor Market Theory: A Reconsideration of the Evidence," NBER Working Papers 1670, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  27. Lindbeck, Assar & Snower, Dennis J, 1985. "Explanations of Unemployment," Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Oxford University Press, vol. 1(2), pages 34-59, Summer.
  28. Oswald, Andrew J, 1982. "The Microeconomic Theory of the Trade Union," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 92(367), pages 576-95, September.
  29. Dickens, William T & Lang, Kevin, 1988. "The Reemergence of Segmented Labor Market Theory," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 78(2), pages 129-34, May.
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