Beyond Gaussian averages: redirecting international business and management research toward extreme events and power laws
Practicing managers live in a world of ‘extremes’, but international business and management research is based on Gaussian statistics that rule out such extremes. On occasion, positive feedback processes among interactive data points cause extreme events characterized by power laws. They seem ubiquitous; we list 80 kinds of them – half each among natural and social phenomena. We use imposed tension and Per Bak's ‘self-organized criticality’ to argue that Pareto-based science and statistics (based on interdependence, positive feedback, scalability, (nearly) infinite variance, and emphasizing extremes) should parallel the traditional dominance of Gaussian statistics (based on independent data points, finite variance and emphasizing averages). We question quantitative journal publications depending on Gaussian statistics. The cost is inaccurate science and irrelevance to practitioners. In conclusion, no statistical findings should be accepted into business studies if they gain significance via some assumption device by which extreme events and (nearly) infinite variance are ignored. Accordingly, we suggest redirecting international business studies, and management research in general. Journal of International Business Studies (2007) 38, 1212–1230; doi:10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8400324
Volume (Year): 38 (2007)
Issue (Month): 7 (December)
|Contact details of provider:|| Web page: http://www.palgrave-journals.com/|
Web page: https://aib.msu.edu/
|Order Information:||Web: http://www.springer.com/business+%26+management/journal/41267/PS2|
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Seymour Levy & Gordon Donhowe, 1962. "Exploration of a Biological Model of Industrial Organization," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 35, pages 335-335.
- Peter J Buckley & Donald R Lessard, 2005. "Regaining the edge for international business research," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 36(6), pages 595-599, November.
- Levy, Moshe & Solomon, Sorin, 1997. "New evidence for the power-law distribution of wealth," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 242(1), pages 90-94.
- Hegyi, Géza & Néda, Zoltán & Augusta Santos, Maria, 2007. "Wealth distribution and Pareto's law in the Hungarian medieval society," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 380(C), pages 271-277.
- Geoffrey B. West & James H. Brown & Brian J. Enquist, 1997. "A General Model for the Origin of Allometric Scaling Laws in Biology," Working Papers 97-03-019, Santa Fe Institute.
- Carliss Y. Baldwin & Kim B. Clark, 2000. "Design Rules, Volume 1: The Power of Modularity," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262024667.
- Peter J Buckley & Pervez N Ghauri, 2004. "Globalisation, economic geography and the strategy of multinational enterprises," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 35(3), pages 255-255, May.
- Delli Gatti, Domenico & Di Guilmi, Corrado & Gaffeo, Edoardo & Gallegati, Mauro, 2004. "Bankruptcy as an exit mechanism for systems with a variable number of components," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 344(1), pages 8-13.
- F. Clementi & M. Gallegati, 2005.
"Pareto's Law of Income Distribution: Evidence for Germany, the United Kingdom, and the United States,"
physics/0504217, arXiv.org, revised Mar 2006.
- Fabio Clementi & Mauro Gallegati, 2005. "Pareto's Law of Income Distribution: Evidence for Grermany, the United Kingdom, and the United States," Microeconomics 0505006, EconWPA.
- Podobnik, Boris & Fu, Dongfeng & Jagric, Timotej & Grosse, Ivo & Eugene Stanley, H., 2006. "Fractionally integrated process for transition economics," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 362(2), pages 465-470.
- Peter J Buckley & Martin J Carter, 2004. "A formal analysis of knowledge combination in multinational enterprises," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 35(5), pages 371-384, September.
- Peter J Buckley & Pervez N Ghauri, 2004. "Globalisation, economic geography and the strategy of multinational enterprises," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 35(2), pages 81-98, March.
- Youngki Lee & Luis A. N. Amaral & David Canning & Martin Meyer & H. Eugene Stanley, 1998. "Universal features in the growth dynamics of complex organizations," Papers cond-mat/9804100, arXiv.org.
- Isabelle Huault & V. Perret & S. Charreire-Petit, 2007. "Management," Post-Print halshs-00337676, HAL.
- Scheinkman, Jose A & Woodford, Michael, 1994. "Self-Organized Criticality and Economic Fluctuations," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 84(2), pages 417-421, May.
- J. Myles Shaver, 1998. "Accounting for Endogeneity When Assessing Strategy Performance: Does Entry Mode Choice Affect FDI Survival?," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 44(4), pages 571-585, April.
- Zanette, Damián H & Manrubia, Susanna C, 2001. "Vertical transmission of culture and the distribution of family names," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 295(1), pages 1-8. Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:pal:jintbs:v:38:y:2007:i:7:p:1212-1230. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Sonal Shukla)or (Rebekah McClure)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.