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Oligarchikus és demokratikus társadalmak
[Oligarchic versus democratic societies]

Listed author(s):
  • Acemoglu, Daron

    ()

E tanulmány egy olyan modellt mutat be, amelynek segítségével elemezni lehet a különböző politikai rendszerek gazdasági teljesítményét. Egy "oligarchikus" társadalom - amelyben a politikai hatalom a főbb termelők kezében van - védi a tulajdonjogokat, azonban jelentős belépési korlátokat állít az új vállalkozók elé. Demokráciában a politikai hatalom széles körben megosztott, a termelőktől származó adóbevételeket újraosztják, de igyekeznek elkerülni a belépési korlátokat. Amikor a demokratikus társadalomban az adóráta magas, és a belépési korlátok okozta torzítások csekélyek, akkor az oligarchikus társadalom a hatékonyabb. Mivel a vállalkozók komparatív előnye idővel csökken, a belépési korlátok okozta torzítás időben növekedni fog. Az oligarchikus társadalmakra a fellendülés, majd a visszaesés jellemző: két, minden más tekintetben egyforma társadalomban először az oligarchikus berendezkedésű lesz gazdagabb, majd lemarad a demokratikus berendezkedésű társadalomhoz képest. A tanulmány ezen túlmenően azt is bemutatja, hogyan képes a demokratikus társadalom jobban kiaknázni az új technológia nyújtotta lehetőségeket, hogyan válhat demokratikussá egy oligarchikus társadalom a vezetőréteg belső konfliktusának következtében, és hogyan konzerválja a jövedelem egyenlőtlen elosztása a meglévő oligarchikus intézményeket, amelyek akkor is fennmaradhatnak, amikor a társadalom számára már tetemes költségekkel járnak. Journal of Economic Literature (JEL) kód: P16, O10.

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Article provided by Közgazdasági Szemle Alapítvány (Economic Review Foundation) in its journal Közgazdasági Szemle (Economic Review - monthly of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences).

Volume (Year): LV (2008)
Issue (Month): 7 ()
Pages: 622-659

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Handle: RePEc:ksa:szemle:1034
Contact details of provider: Web page: http://www.kszemle.hu

Order Information: Postal: Közgazdasági Szemle Alapítvány (Economic Review Foundation) Budapest, Budaörsi út 45., 1112, Hungary
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