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Entrepreneurship and immigration: evidence from GEM Luxembourg


  • Chiara Peroni

    () (Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques du Grand-Duché du Luxembourg (STATEC)
    Agence pour la normalisation et l’économie de la connaissance (ANEC))

  • Cesare A. F. Riillo

    () (Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques du Grand-Duché du Luxembourg (STATEC)
    Agence pour la normalisation et l’économie de la connaissance (ANEC))

  • Francesco Sarracino

    () (Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques du Grand-Duché du Luxembourg (STATEC)
    Agence pour la normalisation et l’économie de la connaissance (ANEC)
    National Research University Higher School of Economics)


This study analyses the role of immigration background and education in creating new business initiatives in Luxembourg, a country where 44 % of the resident population is immigrant. We investigate the features of entrepreneurs and of the Luxembourgish System of Entrepreneurship using the Global Entrepreneurship Monitoring surveys of 2013 and 2014. We study the effect of immigration through all the stages of entrepreneurial process: interest in starting a new business, effectively starting, running a new business and managing an established business. We adopt a sequential logit to model entrepreneurial process as a sequence of stages. We find that first-generation immigrants, and in particular highly educated ones, are more interested in starting a new business than non-immigrants, but they do not differ in subsequent entrepreneurial phases. We argue that policies to attract highly educated immigrants can promote entrepreneurial initiatives in Luxembourg.

Suggested Citation

  • Chiara Peroni & Cesare A. F. Riillo & Francesco Sarracino, 2016. "Entrepreneurship and immigration: evidence from GEM Luxembourg," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 46(4), pages 639-656, April.
  • Handle: RePEc:kap:sbusec:v:46:y:2016:i:4:d:10.1007_s11187-016-9708-y
    DOI: 10.1007/s11187-016-9708-y

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Ratan J. S. Dheer, 2018. "Entrepreneurship by immigrants: a review of existing literature and directions for future research," International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, Springer, vol. 14(3), pages 555-614, September.
    2. Nick Williams & Besnik A. Krasniqi, 2018. "Coming out of conflict: How migrant entrepreneurs utilise human and social capital," Journal of International Entrepreneurship, Springer, vol. 16(2), pages 301-323, June.
    3. Dheer, Ratan J.S. & Lenartowicz, Tomasz, 2020. "Effect of generational status on immigrants’ intentions to start new ventures: The role of cognitions," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 55(3).
    4. Cathy Yang Liu & Lin Ye & Bo Feng, 2019. "Migrant entrepreneurship in China: entrepreneurial transition and firm performance," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 52(3), pages 681-696, March.
    5. Shayegheh Ashourizadeh & Jizhen Li & Kent Adsbøll Wickstrøm, 0. "Immigrants` Entrepreneurial Networks and Export: A Comparative Study," International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, Springer, vol. 0, pages 1-28.
    6. Dabić, Marina & Vlačić, Bozidar & Paul, Justin & Dana, Leo-Paul & Sahasranamam, Sreevas & Glinka, Beata, 2020. "Immigrant entrepreneurship: A review and research agenda," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 113(C), pages 25-38.
    7. Öner, Özge & Klaesson, Johan, 2018. "Ethnic Enclaves and Labor Market Outcomes – What Matters Most: Neighborhood, City or Region?," Working Paper Series 1251, Research Institute of Industrial Economics.
    8. Nerys Fuller-Love & Mofoluke Akiode, 2020. "Transnational Entrepreneurs Dynamics in Entrepreneurial Ecosystems: A Critical Review," The Journal of Entrepreneurship, Entrepreneurship Development Institute of India, vol. 6(1), pages 41-66, January.


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