Where Angels Fear to Tread: Internationalization of Emerging Country SMEs
Based on institutional theory and risk perspectives, this study examines how the entrepreneurial orientation of firms as determined by national cultural factors is related to the internationalization of small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) from emerging and developing countries. We also suggest that institutional improvements can have a moderating effect on the relationship between culture and internationalization. We develop a unique measure of internationalization and test it on a sample of 7,212 SMEs from 36 developing countries using a multilevel linear hierarchical model that allows us to examine both firm- and country-level effects. We find that developed institutions support the internationalization of SMEs from more masculine and individualistic cultures. Copyright Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013
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