The Role of Water in Manufacturing
Water's role in manufacturing technologies has received limited attention. A KLEM model of the sector's technology is extended to include two facets of water use: intake and recirculation. Three annual cross-sectional surveys on plant-level water use are pooled and combined with census data to estimate this extended model for the Canadian manufacturing sector over the period 1981–1991. While Canada's water allocation regulations influence private water withdrawals, statistical tests support representing water intake as a variable input. Water intake is found to be a substitute for water recirculation, energy, labour and capital. The relationship between water intake and recirculation is stronger when water intake is process-related rather than related to cooling and steam production. Technological change has been biased in the direction of increased water intake and decreased water recirculation. Copyright Kluwer Academic Publishers 2001
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Volume (Year): 18 (2001)
Issue (Month): 4 (April)
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