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Social tie, social capital, and social behavior: Toward an integrative model of informal exchange

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  • Peter Li

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Abstract

What is the unique nature of social capital that differentiates itself from other forms of capital? How should we conceptualize and operationalize social capital? What are the major drivers and outcomes of social capital? To address the three questions, I apply the duality lens—the perspective of regarding each entity as a paradox consisting of two contrasting yet interdependent components—to social capital for an integrative model of informal exchange. The focus of this paper is on the duality relationship between the content variables (social tie, social capital, social behavior along two basic dimensions: trust for tie strength and option for network structure) and the process variables (antecedent, content, process, and consequence) toward a geocentric framework of formal–informal exchange. I intend to make two contributions. First, the conceptualization and operationalization of social capital is developed from the duality lens of formal–informal exchange so as to identify the unique nature of social capital as an informal entity. Second, a holistic, dynamic, and dialectic model of social capital is provided to explore the causal links between various elements related to social capital. Copyright Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Suggested Citation

  • Peter Li, 2007. "Social tie, social capital, and social behavior: Toward an integrative model of informal exchange," Asia Pacific Journal of Management, Springer, vol. 24(2), pages 227-246, June.
  • Handle: RePEc:kap:asiapa:v:24:y:2007:i:2:p:227-246 DOI: 10.1007/s10490-006-9031-2
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Michael Carney, 2005. "Globalization and the Renewal of Asian Business Networks," Asia Pacific Journal of Management, Springer, vol. 22(4), pages 337-354, December.
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    5. Anne S. Tsui, 2004. "Contributing to Global Management Knowledge: A Case for High Quality Indigenous Research," Asia Pacific Journal of Management, Springer, vol. 21(4), pages 491-513, December.
    6. Lori Rosenkopf & Paul Almeida, 2003. "Overcoming Local Search Through Alliances and Mobility," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 49(6), pages 751-766, June.
    7. Alfred Wong & Dean Tjosvold, 2006. "Collectivist values for learning in organizational relationships in China: the role of trust and vertical coordination," Asia Pacific Journal of Management, Springer, vol. 23(3), pages 299-317, September.
    8. Julie Li, 2005. "The Formation of Managerial Networks of Foreign Firms in China: The Effects of Strategic Orientations," Asia Pacific Journal of Management, Springer, vol. 22(4), pages 423-443, December.
    9. Ignace Ng & Irene Chow, 2005. "Does Networking with Colleagues Matter in Enhancing Job Performance?," Asia Pacific Journal of Management, Springer, vol. 22(4), pages 405-421, December.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Yina Mao & Kelly Peng & Chi-Sum Wong, 2012. "Indigenous research on Asia: In search of the emic components of guanxi," Asia Pacific Journal of Management, Springer, pages 1143-1168.
    2. Alain Verbeke & Liena Kano, 2013. "The transaction cost economics (TCE) theory of trading favors," Asia Pacific Journal of Management, Springer, pages 409-431.
    3. Schiller Daniel, 2012. "Editorial. Informal dynamics of economic processes," Zeitschrift für Wirtschaftsgeographie, De Gruyter, vol. 56(1-2), pages 1-8, October.
    4. Meyer Susanne, 2012. "The world’s factory and informal ties – organisation of firm networks in the electronics industry in the Greater Pearl River Delta, China," Zeitschrift für Wirtschaftsgeographie, De Gruyter, vol. 56(1-2), pages 9-24, October.
    5. Sven Horak & Andreas Klein, 2016. "Persistence of informal social networks in East Asia: Evidence from South Korea," Asia Pacific Journal of Management, Springer, pages 673-694.
    6. Peter Ping Li & Tomoki Sekiguchi & Kevin Zhou, 2016. "The emerging research on indigenous management in Asia," Asia Pacific Journal of Management, Springer, pages 583-594.
    7. Roxana Gutiérrez-Romero, 2012. "Determinants of Spanish Firms' Life Cycle and Job Creation: A Pseudo-Panel Approach," Working Papers wpdea1209, Department of Applied Economics at Universitat Autonoma of Barcelona.
    8. Horak, Sven & Yang, Inju, 2016. "Affective networks, informal ties, and the limits of expatriate effectiveness," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 25(5), pages 1030-1042.
    9. Jalees, Tariq & Tariq, Huma & Zaman, Syed Imran & Alam Kazmi, Syed Hasnain, 2015. "Social Media in Virtual Marketing," MPRA Paper 69868, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 10 Apr 2015.
    10. Sven Horak & Markus Taube, 2016. "Same but different? Similarities and fundamental differences of informal social networks in China (guanxi) and Korea (yongo)," Asia Pacific Journal of Management, Springer, pages 595-616.
    11. Hom, Peter W. & Xiao, Zhixing, 2011. "Embedding social networks: How guanxi ties reinforce Chinese employees’ retention," Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Elsevier, vol. 116(2), pages 188-202.
    12. Xiu-Hao Ding & Rui-Hua Huang & Dong-Lin Liu, 2012. "Resource allocation for open and hidden learning in learning alliances," Asia Pacific Journal of Management, Springer, pages 103-127.
    13. repec:kap:asiapa:v:34:y:2017:i:3:d:10.1007_s10490-016-9490-z is not listed on IDEAS
    14. Stanislaw Walukiewicz & Aneta Wiktorzak, 2011. "Social Capital in Education," ERSA conference papers ersa10p632, European Regional Science Association.
    15. Mary Teagarden & Andreas Schotter, 2013. "Favor prevalence in emerging markets: A multi-level analysis," Asia Pacific Journal of Management, Springer, pages 447-460.
    16. Chai, Shijun & Chen, Yang & Huang, Bihong & Ye, Dezhu, 2016. "Social networks and informal financial inclusion," RIEI Working Papers 2016-04, Xi'an Jiaotong-Liverpool University, Research Institute for Economic Integration.
    17. Keck Markus & Bohle Hans-Georg & Zingel Wolfgang-Peter, 2012. "Dealing with insecurity," Zeitschrift für Wirtschaftsgeographie, De Gruyter, vol. 56(1-2), pages 43-57, October.
    18. Stanislaw Walukiewicz, 2011. "Measuring Social Capital and Proximimty," ERSA conference papers ersa10p309, European Regional Science Association.

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