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Gender differences in wages and leadership

Author

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  • Mario Macis

    (Johns Hopkins University, USA, and IZA, Germany)

Abstract

Gender wage gaps and women’s underrepresentation in leadership positions exist at remarkably similar magnitudes across countries at all levels of income per capita. Women’s educational attainment and labor market participation have improved, but this has been insufficient to close the gaps. A combination of economic forces, cultural and social norms, discrimination, and unequal legal rights appear to be contributing to gender inequality. A range of policy options (such as quotas) have been implemented in some countries; some have been successful, whereas for others the effects are still unclear.

Suggested Citation

  • Mario Macis, 2017. "Gender differences in wages and leadership," IZA World of Labor, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), pages 323-323, January.
  • Handle: RePEc:iza:izawol:journl:y:2015:n:323
    as

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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Campos,Francisco Moraes Leitao & Goldstein,Markus P. & Mcgorman,Laura & Munoz Boudet,Ana Maria & Pimhidzai,Obert, 2015. "Breaking the metal ceiling : female entrepreneurs who succeed in male-dominated sectors," Policy Research Working Paper Series 7503, The World Bank.
    2. Marianne Bertrand & Sandra E. Black & Sissel Jensen & Adriana Lleras-Muney, 2014. "Breaking the Glass Ceiling? The Effect of Board Quotas on Female Labor Market Outcomes in Norway," NBER Working Papers 20256, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    3. Francine D. Blau & Lawrence M. Kahn, 2017. "The Gender Wage Gap: Extent, Trends, and Explanations," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 55(3), pages 789-865, September.
    4. Khalid Sekkat & Ariane Szafarz & Ilan Tojerow, 2015. "Women at the Top in Developing Countries: Evidence from Firm-Level Data," Working Papers CEB 15-048, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
    5. Asif Islam & Mohammad Amin, 2016. "Women Managers and The Gender-Based Gap in Access to Education: Evidence from Firm-Level Data in Developing Countries," Feminist Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 22(3), pages 127-153, July.
    6. Flabbi, Luca & Macis, Mario & Moro, Andrea & Schivardi, Fabiano, 2014. "Do Female Executives Make a Difference? The Impact of Female Leadership on Gender Gaps and Firm Performance," IZA Discussion Papers 8602, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    7. Raghabendra Chattopadhyay & Esther Duflo, 2004. "Women as Policy Makers: Evidence from a Randomized Policy Experiment in India," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 72(5), pages 1409-1443, September.
    8. Astrid Kunze & Amalia R. Miller, 2017. "Women Helping Women? Evidence from Private Sector Data on Workplace Hierarchies," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 99(5), pages 769-775, December.
    9. Nicole M Fortin, 2005. "Gender Role Attitudes and the Labour-market Outcomes of Women across OECD Countries," Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Oxford University Press, vol. 21(3), pages 416-438, Autumn.
    10. Seema Jayachandran, 2015. "The Roots of Gender Inequality in Developing Countries," Annual Review of Economics, Annual Reviews, vol. 7(1), pages 63-88, August.
    11. Luca Flabbi & Claudia Piras & Scott Abrahams, 2017. "Female corporate leadership in Latin America and the Caribbean region: Representation and firm-level outcomes," International Journal of Manpower, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 38(6), pages 790-818, September.
    12. Hugo Ñopo & Nancy Daza & Johanna Ramos, 2012. "Gender earning gaps around the world: a study of 64 countries," International Journal of Manpower, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 33(5), pages 464-513, August.
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    1. repec:ces:ifodic:v:15:y:2017:i:2:p:19337555 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. repec:ces:ifodic:v:15:y:2017:i:2:p:18-21 is not listed on IDEAS

    More about this item

    Keywords

    gender discrimination; gender wage gaps; female leadership; economic development;

    JEL classification:

    • J1 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics
    • J3 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs

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