IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

Impact of Performance-Based Contracting on Product Reliability: An Empirical Analysis


  • Jose A. Guajardo

    () (The Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104)

  • Morris A. Cohen

    () (The Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104)

  • Sang-Hyun Kim

    () (Yale School of Management, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06511)

  • Serguei Netessine

    () (INSEAD, 77305 Fontainebleau, France)


Using a proprietary data set provided by a major manufacturer of aircraft engines, we empirically investigate how product reliability is impacted by the use of two different types of after-sales maintenance support contracts: time and material contracts (T&MC) and performance-based contracts (PBC). We offer a number of competing arguments based on the theory of incentives that establish why product reliability may increase or decrease under PBC. We build a two-stage econometric model that explicitly accounts for the endogeneity of contract choices, and find evidence of a positive and significant effect of PBC on product reliability. The estimation of our model indicates that product reliability is higher by 25%-40% under PBC compared to under T&MC, once the endogeneity of contract choice is taken into account. Our results are consistent with two mechanisms for reliability improvement under PBC: more frequent scheduled maintenance and better care performed in each maintenance event. This paper was accepted by Martin Lariviere, operations management.

Suggested Citation

  • Jose A. Guajardo & Morris A. Cohen & Sang-Hyun Kim & Serguei Netessine, 2012. "Impact of Performance-Based Contracting on Product Reliability: An Empirical Analysis," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 58(5), pages 961-979, May.
  • Handle: RePEc:inm:ormnsc:v:58:y:2012:i:5:p:961-979
    DOI: 10.1287/mnsc.1110.1465

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Daniel A. Ackerberg & Maristella Botticini, 2002. "Endogenous Matching and the Empirical Determinants of Contract Form," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 110(3), pages 564-591, June.
    2. Sharon Novak & Scott Stern, 2008. "How Does Outsourcing Affect Performance Dynamics? Evidence from the Automobile Industry," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 54(12), pages 1963-1979, December.
    3. Sharon Novak & Steven D. Eppinger, 2001. "Sourcing By Design: Product Complexity and the Supply Chain," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 47(1), pages 189-204, January.
    4. Holmstrom, Bengt & Milgrom, Paul, 1991. "Multitask Principal-Agent Analyses: Incentive Contracts, Asset Ownership, and Job Design," Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization, Oxford University Press, vol. 7(0), pages 24-52, Special I.
    5. Padmanabhan, V, 1995. "Usage Heterogeneity and Extended Warranties," Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 4(1), pages 33-53, Spring.
    6. Edward P. Lazear, 2000. "Performance Pay and Productivity," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 90(5), pages 1346-1361, December.
    7. Ananth V. Iyer & Leroy B. Schwarz & Stefanos A. Zenios, 2005. "A Principal-Agent Model for Product Specification and Production," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 51(1), pages 106-119, January.
    8. Liran Einav & Amy Finkelstein, 2011. "Selection in Insurance Markets: Theory and Empirics in Pictures," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 25(1), pages 115-138, Winter.
    9. Thomas N. Hubbard, 1998. "An Empirical Examination of Moral Hazard in the Vehicle Inspection Market," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 29(2), pages 406-426, Summer.
    10. Michael Rothschild & Joseph Stiglitz, 1976. "Equilibrium in Competitive Insurance Markets: An Essay on the Economics of Imperfect Information," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 90(4), pages 629-649.
    11. Julie H. Mortimer, 2008. "Vertical Contracts in the Video Rental Industry -super-1," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 75(1), pages 165-199.
    12. Anandasivam Gopal & Konduru Sivaramakrishnan & M. S. Krishnan & Tridas Mukhopadhyay, 2003. "Contracts in Offshore Software Development: An Empirical Analysis," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 49(12), pages 1671-1683, December.
    13. repec:dau:papers:123456789/12331 is not listed on IDEAS
    14. Mingshan Lu & Ching‐to Albert Ma & Lasheng Yuan, 2003. "Risk selection and matching in performance‐based contracting," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 12(5), pages 339-354, May.
    15. Lee, Lung-Fei, 1983. "Generalized Econometric Models with Selectivity," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 51(2), pages 507-512, March.
    16. Heckman, James, 2013. "Sample selection bias as a specification error," Applied Econometrics, Publishing House "SINERGIA PRESS", vol. 31(3), pages 129-137.
    17. Charles J. Corbett & Xavier de Groote, 2000. "A Supplier's Optimal Quantity Discount Policy Under Asymmetric Information," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 46(3), pages 444-450, March.
    18. J. Myles Shaver, 1998. "Accounting for Endogeneity When Assessing Strategy Performance: Does Entry Mode Choice Affect FDI Survival?," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 44(4), pages 571-585, April.
    19. Sharon Novak & Scott Stern, 2009. "Complementarity Among Vertical Integration Decisions: Evidence from Automobile Product Development," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 55(2), pages 311-332, February.
    20. Kamalini Ramdas & Taylor Randall, 2008. "Does Component Sharing Help or Hurt Reliability? An Empirical Study in the Automotive Industry," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 54(5), pages 922-938, May.
    21. Christian Terwiesch & Z. Justin Ren & Teck H. Ho & Morris A. Cohen, 2005. "An Empirical Analysis of Forecast Sharing in the Semiconductor Equipment Supply Chain," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 51(2), pages 208-220, February.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Blog mentions

    As found by, the blog aggregator for Economics research:
    1. Thesis Thursday: Sarah Zheng
      by Chris Sampson in The Academic Health Economists' Blog on 2018-03-15 07:00:19


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Grubic, Tonci & Jennions, Ian, 2018. "Do outcome-based contracts exist? The investigation of power-by-the-hour and similar result-oriented cases," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 206(C), pages 209-219.
    2. Chih-An Lin & Homin Chen, 2018. "Deconstructing B2B, co-creation and service deployment in East Asia: evidence from Taiwan and PRC manufacturers," Asia Pacific Business Review, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 24(3), pages 351-370, May.
    3. Rahimi-Ghahroodi, S. & Al Hanbali, A. & Zijm, W.H.M. & Timmer, J.B., 2019. "Emergency supply contracts for a service provider with limited local resources," Reliability Engineering and System Safety, Elsevier, vol. 189(C), pages 445-460.
    4. Patra, Pradipta & Kumar, U. Dinesh & Nowicki, David R. & Randall, Wesley S., 2019. "Effective management of performance-based contracts for sustainment dominant systems," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 208(C), pages 369-382.
    5. Tian Chan & Francis de Véricourt & Omar Besbes, 2014. "Contracting in medical equipment maintenance services: An empirical investigation," ESMT Research Working Papers ESMT-14-05, ESMT European School of Management and Technology.
    6. Izack Cohen & Morris A. Cohen & Elad Landau, 2017. "On sourcing and stocking policies in a two-echelon, multiple location, repairable parts supply chain," Journal of the Operational Research Society, Palgrave Macmillan;The OR Society, vol. 68(6), pages 617-629, June.
    7. Wang, Yulan & Wallace, Stein W. & Shen, Bin & Choi, Tsan-Ming, 2015. "Service supply chain management: A review of operational models," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 247(3), pages 685-698.
    8. Karan Girotra & Serguei Netessine, 2013. "OM Forum —Business Model Innovation for Sustainability," Manufacturing & Service Operations Management, INFORMS, vol. 15(4), pages 537-544, October.
    9. Ge, Qianru & Peng, Hao & van Houtum, Geert-Jan & Adan, Ivo, 2018. "Reliability optimization for series systems under uncertain component failure rates in the design phase," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 196(C), pages 163-175.
    10. Nullmeier, Fabian & Wynstra, Finn & van der Valk, Wendy, 2019. "Mitigating shirking: Contracting performance in buyer-initiated service triads," Other publications TiSEM cebcb590-5a85-4906-b8ec-1, Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management.
    11. Qin, Xuwei & Shao, Lusheng & Jiang, Zhong-Zhong, 2020. "Contract design for equipment after-sales service with business interruption insurance," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 284(1), pages 176-187.
    12. Martin A. Lariviere, 2016. "OM Forum—Supply Chain Contracting: Doughnuts to Bubbles," Manufacturing & Service Operations Management, INFORMS, vol. 18(3), pages 309-313, July.
    13. Narayan Ramasubbu & Chris F. Kemerer, 2016. "Technical Debt and the Reliability of Enterprise Software Systems: A Competing Risks Analysis," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 62(5), pages 1487-1510, May.
    14. Nitin Bakshi & Sang-Hyun Kim & Nicos Savva, 2015. "Signaling New Product Reliability with After-Sales Service Contracts," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 61(8), pages 1812-1829, August.
    15. Öner, K.B. & Kiesmüller, G.P. & van Houtum, G.J., 2015. "On the upgrading policy after the redesign of a component for reliability improvement," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 244(3), pages 867-880.


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:inm:ormnsc:v:58:y:2012:i:5:p:961-979. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Matthew Walls). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.