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Robotics: Breakthrough Technologies, Innovation, Intellectual Property

Author

Listed:
  • Andrew Keisner

    () (Amazon)

  • Julio Raffo

    () (World Intellectual Property Organization)

  • Sacha Wunsch-Vincent

    () (World Intellectual Property Organization)

Abstract

Robotics technology and the increasing sophistication of artificial intelligence are breakthrough innovations with significant growth prospects. They have the potential to disrupt existing socio-economic facets of everyday life. Yet few studies have analysed the development of robotics innovation. This paper closes this gap by analysing current developments in innovation in robotics; how it is diffused, and what role is played by intellectual property (IP). The paper argues that robotics clusters are mainly located in the US and Europe, despite a growing presence in South Korea and China. The robotics innovation ecosystem builds on cooperative networks of actors, including individuals, research institutions, and firms. Governments play a significant role in supporting robotics innovation through funding, military demand, and national robotics strategies. Robotics competitions and prizes provide for an important incentive to innovation. Patents are used to exclude third parties to secure freedom of operation, license technologies, and avoid litigation. The countries with the highest number of patent claims are Japan, China, South Korea, and the US. The growing stock of patents owned by universities and PROs, particularly in China, is noteworthy too. Automotive and electronics companies are still the largest patent filers, but medical technologies and the Internet are emerging as new actors in the field. Secrecy is often used as a tool to appropriate innovation. Copyright protection is relevant to robotics also, mainly for its role in protecting software. Finally, open-source robotics platforms are increasingly used in the early stages of the innovation process as they allow new actors in the robotics field to optimize their initial spending on innovation.

Suggested Citation

  • Andrew Keisner & Julio Raffo & Sacha Wunsch-Vincent, 2016. "Robotics: Breakthrough Technologies, Innovation, Intellectual Property," Foresight and STI Governance (Foresight-Russia till No. 3/2015), National Research University Higher School of Economics, vol. 10(2), pages 7-27.
  • Handle: RePEc:hig:fsight:v:10:y:2016:i:2:p:7-27
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    File URL: https://foresight-journal.hse.ru/data/2016/07/01/1115773433/1-Robotics-7-27.pdf
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    Other versions of this item:

    • Andrew Keisner & Julio Raffo & Sacha Wunsch-Vincent, 2016. "Robotics: Breakthrough Technologies, Innovation, Intellectual Property," Foresight-Russia Форсайт, CyberLeninka;Федеральное государственное автономное образовательное учреждение высшего образования «Национальный исследовательский университет «Высшая школа экономики», vol. 10(2 (eng)), pages 7-27.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Frey, Carl Benedikt & Osborne, Michael A., 2017. "The future of employment: How susceptible are jobs to computerisation?," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 114(C), pages 254-280.
    2. Andrew Keisner & Julio Raffo & Sacha Wunsch-Vincent, 2015. "Breakthrough technologies - Robotics, innovation and intellectual property," WIPO Economic Research Working Papers 30, World Intellectual Property Organization - Economics and Statistics Division.
    3. Kumaresan, Nageswaran & Miyazaki, Kumiko, 1999. "An integrated network approach to systems of innovation--the case of robotics in Japan," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 28(6), pages 563-585, August.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Zoltan Csefalvay & Petros Gkotsis, 2020. "Global race for robotisation - Looking at the entire robotisation chain," JRC Working Papers JRC121184, Joint Research Centre (Seville site).
    2. Natalia Shmatko & Galina Volkova, 2020. "Bridging the Skill Gap in Robotics: Global and National Environment," SAGE Open, , vol. 10(3), pages 21582440209, September.
    3. Egor Skvortcov & Ekaterina Skvortsova & Ivan Sandu & Grigory Iovlev, 2018. "Transition of Agriculture to Digital, Intellectual and Robotics Technologies," Economy of region, Centre for Economic Security, Institute of Economics of Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, vol. 1(3), pages 1014-1028.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    robotics; robot; artificial intelligence; innovation; patent; trade secret; intellectual property; copyright;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • O21 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Development Planning and Policy - - - Planning Models; Planning Policy
    • O35 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Social Innovation

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