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Local Perceptions and Responses to Climate Change and Variability: The Case of Laikipia District, Kenya

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  • Sarah Ayeri Ogalleh

    () (Centre for Development Research, University for Natural Resources and Life Sciences, 1180, Vienna, Austria
    Department for Sustainable Agriculture Systems, Institute of Organic Farming, University for Natural Resources and Life Sciences, 1180,Vienna, Austria)

  • Christian R. Vogl

    () (Department for Sustainable Agriculture Systems, Institute of Organic Farming, University for Natural Resources and Life Sciences, 1180,Vienna, Austria)

  • Josef Eitzinger

    () (Department of Water, Atmosphere and Environment, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, 1180, Vienna, Austria)

  • Michael Hauser

    () (Centre for Development Research, University for Natural Resources and Life Sciences, 1180, Vienna, Austria)

Abstract

Agricultural policies in Kenya aim to improve farmers’ livelihoods. With projected climate change, these policies are short of mechanisms that promote farmers’ adaptation. As a result, smallholders are confronted with a variety of challenges including climate change, which hinders their agricultural production. Local knowledge can be instrumental in assisting smallholders to cope with climate change and variability. In this paper, we present empirical evidence that demonstrates local knowledge, perceptions and adaptations to climate change and variability amongst smallholders of Laikipia district of Kenya. A Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) calculated for one station is compared with smallholders’ perceptions. Data was collected using qualitative and quantitative methods in Umande and Muhonia sub-locations. Qualitative data included 46 transcripts from focus group discussions and key informant interviews. Quantitative data is derived from 206 interviewees. We analyzed qualitative and quantitative data using Atlas-ti and SPSS respectively. According to smallholders’ perceptions, climatic variability is increasingly changing. Local perceptions include decreasing rainfalls, increasing temperatures, increasing frosts and increasing hunger. The PDSI shows a trend towards severe droughts in the last four decades, which is in accordance with farmers’ perceptions. Smallholders use a combination of coping and adaptation strategies to respond to variability, including, among others, diversification of crop varieties, migration and sale of livestock. Significant relationships exist between drought perceptions and some adaptations such as migration and sale of livestock. Farmers have an in-depth knowledge of climatic variability, which they use to inform their coping and adaptation strategies. Knowledge of climatic perceptions and adaptations are vital entry points for decision makers and policy makers to learn how and where to enhance the adaptive capacity of smallholders in rainy and drought periods.

Suggested Citation

  • Sarah Ayeri Ogalleh & Christian R. Vogl & Josef Eitzinger & Michael Hauser, 2012. "Local Perceptions and Responses to Climate Change and Variability: The Case of Laikipia District, Kenya," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 4(12), pages 1-24, December.
  • Handle: RePEc:gam:jsusta:v:4:y:2012:i:12:p:3302-3325:d:21944
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. John Quiggin & David Adamson & Sarah Chambers & Peggy Schrobback, 2010. "Climate Change, Uncertainty, and Adaptation: The Case of Irrigated Agriculture in the Murray-Darling Basin in Australia," Canadian Journal of Agricultural Economics/Revue canadienne d'agroeconomie, Canadian Agricultural Economics Society/Societe canadienne d'agroeconomie, vol. 58(s1), pages 531-554, December.
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    Cited by:

    1. N & a Kaji Budhathoki, "undated". "Climate Change: Perceptions, Reality and Agricultural Practice: Evidence from Nepal," Working papers 123, The South Asian Network for Development and Environmental Economics.
    2. repec:gam:jsusta:v:9:y:2017:i:11:p:2053-:d:118438 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. Nanda Kaji Budhathoki, 2017. "Climate Change: Perceptions, Reality and Agricultural Practice: Evidence from Nepal," Working Papers id:11903, eSocialSciences.
    4. Jeanne Y. Coulibaly & Glwadys A. Gbetibouo & Godfrey Kundhlande & Gudeta W. Sileshi & Tracy L. Beedy, 2015. "Responding to Crop Failure: Understanding Farmers’ Coping Strategies in Southern Malawi," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 7(2), pages 1-17, February.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    climate change; climate variability; perceptions; smallholders; knowledge; adaptation; policy;

    JEL classification:

    • Q - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics
    • Q0 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - General
    • Q2 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Renewable Resources and Conservation
    • Q3 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Nonrenewable Resources and Conservation
    • Q5 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics
    • Q56 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Environment and Development; Environment and Trade; Sustainability; Environmental Accounts and Accounting; Environmental Equity; Population Growth
    • O13 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Agriculture; Natural Resources; Environment; Other Primary Products

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