IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

Accessible Tourism in Natural Park Areas: A Social Network Analysis to Discard Barriers and Provide Information for People with Disabilities


  • Piervito Bianchi

    (Department of Economics, University of Foggia, 71121 Foggia, Italy)

  • Giulio Mario Cappelletti

    (Department of Economics, Management and Territory, University of Foggia, 71121 Foggia, Italy)

  • Elisabetta Mafrolla

    (Department of Economics, Management and Territory, University of Foggia, 71121 Foggia, Italy)

  • Edgardo Sica

    (Department of Economics, Management and Territory, University of Foggia, 71121 Foggia, Italy)

  • Roberta Sisto

    (Department of Economics, Management and Territory, University of Foggia, 71121 Foggia, Italy)


Although regulations designed to meet the necessities of tourists with disabilities are allowing disables to travel more, they are still encountering barriers and discriminatory practices. A relevant obstacle in making the tourist policy effective is represented by the lack of information and communication about needs and expectations of disabled categories. In this context, the present paper focuses on the coproduction process of tourist public policies for disables by looking at the network that facilitates communication among the actors taking part in the process. We adopt the Social Network Analysis (SNA) to study the policy network, i.e., how public administrations and policy users (associations of citizens/people with disabilities and entrepreneurs) exchange information about the accessibility to the Gargano National Park, a protected natural area in the South of Italy. In particular, we investigate the role of entrepreneurial stakeholders in channeling information and the presence of policy brokers, i.e., stakeholders that spread the policies to the whole network. Our findings show that a limited number of actors involved in granting accessibility to tourists with disabilities is engaged in information exchanges. Moreover, information flows are guided by only one public administration that plays, therefore, a key role in the implementation of policies that support the parks’ accessibility.

Suggested Citation

  • Piervito Bianchi & Giulio Mario Cappelletti & Elisabetta Mafrolla & Edgardo Sica & Roberta Sisto, 2020. "Accessible Tourism in Natural Park Areas: A Social Network Analysis to Discard Barriers and Provide Information for People with Disabilities," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 12(23), pages 1-14, November.
  • Handle: RePEc:gam:jsusta:v:12:y:2020:i:23:p:9915-:d:452014

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Stephen P Osborne & Zoe Radnor & Kirsty Strokosch, 2016. "Co-Production and the Co-Creation of Value in Public Services: A suitable case for treatment?," Public Management Review, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 18(5), pages 639-653, May.
    2. Natalie Helbig & Sharon Dawes & Zamira Dzhusupova & Bram Klievink & Catherine Gerald Mkude, 2015. "Stakeholder Engagement in Policy Development: Observations and Lessons from International Experience," Public Administration and Information Technology, in: Marijn Janssen & Maria A. Wimmer & Ameneh Deljoo (ed.), Policy Practice and Digital Science, edition 127, chapter 9, pages 177-204, Springer.
    3. Victor Pestoff, 2006. "Citizens and co-production of welfare services," Public Management Review, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 8(4), pages 503-519, December.
    4. Piergiuseppe Morone & Roberta Sisto & Richard Taylor, 2006. "Knowledge Diffusion and Networking in the Organic Production Sector: A Case Study," EuroChoices, The Agricultural Economics Society, vol. 5(3), pages 40-46, December.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Edgardo Sica & Roberta Sisto & Piervito Bianchi & Giulio Cappelletti, 2020. "Inclusivity and Responsible Tourism: Designing a Trademark for a National Park Area," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 13(1), pages 1-11, December.
    2. Naomi di Santo & Ilaria Russo & Roberta Sisto, 2022. "Climate Change and Natural Resource Scarcity: A Literature Review on Dry Farming," Land, MDPI, vol. 11(12), pages 1-25, November.
    3. Haijian Li & Wujie Xie, 2022. "Research on the Structural Characteristics and Evolutionary Process of China’s Tourism Investment Spatial Correlation Network," IJERPH, MDPI, vol. 19(23), pages 1-20, November.
    4. Maria José Aguilar-Carrasco & Eric Gielen & Maria Vallés-Planells & Francisco Galiana & Mercedes Almenar-Muñoz & Cecil Konijnendijk, 2022. "Promoting Inclusive Outdoor Recreation in National Park Governance: A Comparative Perspective from Canada and Spain," IJERPH, MDPI, vol. 19(5), pages 1-25, February.
    5. Maria Giovina Pasca & Grazia Chiara Elmo & Gabriella Arcese & Giulio Mario Cappelletti & Olimpia Martucci, 2022. "Accessible Tourism in Protected Natural Areas: An Empirical Study in the Lazio Region," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 14(3), pages 1-12, February.
    6. Fabio De Matteis & Giovanni Notaristefano & Piervito Bianchi, 2021. "Public—Private Partnership Governance for Accessible Tourism in Marine Protected Areas (MPAs)," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 13(15), pages 1-14, July.
    7. Nora Zulvianti & Hasdi Aimon & Abror Abror, 2022. "The Influence of Environmental and Non-Environmental Factors on Tourist Satisfaction in Halal Tourism Destinations in West Sumatra, Indonesia," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 14(15), pages 1-17, July.
    8. Kai Wang & Menghan Wang & Chang Gan & Qinchang Chen & Mihai Voda, 2021. "Tourism Economic Network Structural Characteristics of National Parks in the Central Region of China," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 13(9), pages 1-19, April.
    9. Riccardo Beltramo & Stefano Duglio & Giulio Mario Cappelletti, 2022. "Should I Stay or Can I Go? Accessible Tourism and Mountain Huts in Gran Paradiso National Park," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 14(5), pages 1-16, March.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Carolina Isaza Espinosa & Juan Carlos Henao & Santiago Tellez Cañas, 2021. "Disrupción tecnológica, transformación digital y sociedad. Tomo II, Políticas y públicas y regulación en las tecnologías disruptivas," Books, Universidad Externado de Colombia, Facultad de Derecho, number 1281.
    2. Michael John Norton, 2021. "Co-Production within Child and Adolescent Mental Health: A Systematic Review," IJERPH, MDPI, vol. 18(22), pages 1-22, November.
    3. Rocco Palumbo & Stefania Vezzosi & Paola Picciolli & Alessandro Landini & Carmela Annarumma & Rosalba Manna, 2018. "Fostering organizational change through co-production. Insights from an Italian experience," International Review on Public and Nonprofit Marketing, Springer;International Association of Public and Non-Profit Marketing, vol. 15(3), pages 371-391, September.
    4. Floriana Fusco & Marta Marsilio & Chiara Guglielmetti, 2018. "La co-production in sanit?: un?analisi bibliometrica," MECOSAN, FrancoAngeli Editore, vol. 2018(108), pages 35-54.
    5. Klimczuk, Andrzej & Gawron, Grzegorz & Szweda-Lewandowska, Zofia, 2021. "Starzenie się populacji. Aktywizacja, koprodukcja i integracja społeczna osób starszych [Population Ageing: Activation, Co-Production, and Social Integration of Older People]," MPRA Paper 108238, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    6. Jacob Torfing & Eva Sørensen, 2019. "Interactive Political Leadership in Theory and Practice: How Elected Politicians May Benefit from Co-Creating Public Value Outcomes," Administrative Sciences, MDPI, vol. 9(3), pages 1-18, July.
    7. repec:hal:journl:hal-03650216 is not listed on IDEAS
    8. Svetlana Suslova, 2016. "Collective Co-Production in Russian Schools," Voprosy obrazovaniya / Educational Studies Moscow, National Research University Higher School of Economics, issue 4, pages 144-162.
    9. Wollni, Meike & Andersson, Camilla, 2014. "Spatial patterns of organic agriculture adoption: Evidence from Honduras," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 97(C), pages 120-128.
    10. Md Altab Hossin & Jie Du & Lei Mu & Isaac Owusu Asante, 2023. "Big Data-Driven Public Policy Decisions: Transformation Toward Smart Governance," SAGE Open, , vol. 13(4), pages 21582440231, December.
    11. Ayda Eraydın & Bilge Armatlı Köroğlu & Hilal Erkuş Öztürk & Suna Senem Yaşar, 2008. "Network Governance for Competitiveness: The Role of Policy Networks in the Economic Performance of Settlements in the Izmir Region," Urban Studies, Urban Studies Journal Limited, vol. 45(11), pages 2291-2321, October.
    12. Pestoff, 2014. "Collective Action and the Sustainability of Co-Production," Public Management Review, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 16(3), pages 383-401, April.
    13. Pwint Kay Khine & Jianing Mi & Raza Shahid, 2021. "A Comparative Analysis of Co-Production in Public Services," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 13(12), pages 1-13, June.
    14. Manuel Alméstar & Sara Romero-Muñoz & Nieves Mestre & Uriel Fogué & Eva Gil & Amanda Masha, 2023. "(Un)Likely Connections between (Un)Likely Actors in the Art/NBS Co-Creation Process: Application of KREBS Cycle of Creativity to the Cyborg Garden Project," Land, MDPI, vol. 12(6), pages 1-25, May.
    15. Buics, László & Eisinger Balassa, Boglárka, 2020. "Analyzing Public Service Processes from Customer and Employee Perspectives by Using Service Blueprinting and Business Process Modelling," Proceedings of the ENTRENOVA - ENTerprise REsearch InNOVAtion Conference (2020), Virtual Conference, in: Proceedings of the ENTRENOVA - ENTerprise REsearch InNOVAtion Conference, Virtual Conference, 10-12 September 2020, pages 195-211, IRENET - Society for Advancing Innovation and Research in Economy, Zagreb.
    16. Bartsits, Igor (Барциц, Игорь) & Borshchevskiy, Georgiy (Борщевский, Георгий) & Magomedov, Kerem (Магомедов, Керем), 2018. "Current State and Development Trends of the State Civil Service in Russia [Современное Состояние И Тенденции Развития Государственной Гражданской Службы В России: Аналитический Доклад]," Published Papers 011807, Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration.
    17. De Witte, Kristof & Geys, Benny, 2013. "Citizen coproduction and efficient public good provision: Theory and evidence from local public libraries," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 224(3), pages 592-602.
    18. Bergerum, Carolina & Wolmesjö, Maria & Thor, Johan, 2022. "Organising and managing patient and public involvement to enhance quality improvement—Comparing a Swedish and a Dutch hospital," Health Policy, Elsevier, vol. 126(7), pages 603-612.
    19. Pascal Frucquet & David Carassus & Didier Chabaud & Pierre Marin, 2021. "Influence of public policies of Smart Cities and Smart Territories on the renewal of local governance [L’influence des politiques publiques de Villes et Territoires Intelligents sur la rénovation d," Post-Print hal-03543436, HAL.
    20. Akaateba, Millicent Awialie & Huang, Huang & Adumpo, Emile Akangoa, 2018. "Between co-production and institutional hybridity in land delivery: Insights from local planning practice in peri-urban Tamale, Ghana," Land Use Policy, Elsevier, vol. 72(C), pages 215-226.
    21. Smotritskaya, I., 2023. "Public governance: Towards dialogue and cooperation?," Journal of the New Economic Association, New Economic Association, vol. 61(4), pages 246-252.


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:gam:jsusta:v:12:y:2020:i:23:p:9915-:d:452014. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: MDPI Indexing Manager (email available below). General contact details of provider: .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service. RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.