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The Electric Bicycle: Worldwide Research Trends

Author

Listed:
  • Esther Salmeron-Manzano

    () (Faculty of Legal, Social and Human Sciences, Universidad Internacional de La Rioja (UNIR), Av. de la Paz, 137, 26006 Logroño, Spain)

  • Francisco Manzano-Agugliaro

    () (Department of Engineering, University of Almeria, ceiA3, 04120 Almeria, Spain)

Abstract

The bicycle has gone from being an old-fashioned recreational product to a less polluting means of transport and a compact, ultra-light personal mobility tool. This is how electrical bicycles will be used as the pillar that could support individual public transport in large cities worldwide. The objective of this manuscript is to detect how worldwide research on the electric bicycle is being developed, and, especially, around which scientific domains is it clustered, to finally identify the main trends in the field. This study has been carried out based on the Scopus database, where all the publications related to the topic of the electric bicycle have been analyzed up to the year 2017. ¨Therefore, research on the global research trends of this topic was conducted. Its evolution over time shows that since 2008 the growth of publications is much higher than in the previous period. The main countries are China and the USA, and it can be inferred that there are two major trend countries with high environmental awareness, which also have a large population and that the electric bicycle is a suitable and sustainable form of transport. Among the main scientific fields, engineering leads in research. The keyword analysis shows that the central theme is electric, then battery and motor stand out. A community detection was applied to detect the six main clusters of this research, largely dedicated to the following topics: Transportation–Environment, Electrical Engineering, Safety, Batteries, Sporting Goods–Urban Planning, and Mechanical Engineering. This manuscript shows that global research trends about the electric bicycle are increasing, and that it should be considered a means of sustainable urban transport and will therefore contribute to energy saving and sustainable energy.

Suggested Citation

  • Esther Salmeron-Manzano & Francisco Manzano-Agugliaro, 2018. "The Electric Bicycle: Worldwide Research Trends," Energies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 11(7), pages 1-16, July.
  • Handle: RePEc:gam:jeners:v:11:y:2018:i:7:p:1894-:d:159008
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Elliot Fishman & Christopher Cherry, 2016. "E-bikes in the Mainstream: Reviewing a Decade of Research," Transport Reviews, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 36(1), pages 72-91, January.
    2. Estela Gimenez & Maria Salinas & Francisco Manzano-Agugliaro, 2018. "Worldwide Research on Plant Defense against Biotic Stresses as Improvement for Sustainable Agriculture," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 10(2), pages 1-19, February.
    3. Elliot Fishman, 2016. "Bikeshare: A Review of Recent Literature," Transport Reviews, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 36(1), pages 92-113, January.
    4. Bingtuan Gao & Wenhu Zhang & Yi Tang & Mingjin Hu & Mingcheng Zhu & Huiyu Zhan, 2014. "Game-Theoretic Energy Management for Residential Users with Dischargeable Plug-in Electric Vehicles," Energies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 7(11), pages 1-20, November.
    5. Cherry, Christopher R. & Weinert, Jonathan X. & Yang, Xinmiao, 2009. "Comparative Environmental Impacts of Electric Bikes in China," Institute of Transportation Studies, Working Paper Series qt16k918sh, Institute of Transportation Studies, UC Davis.
    6. Jonathan Weinert & Chaktan Ma & Christopher Cherry, 2007. "The transition to electric bikes in China: history and key reasons for rapid growth," Transportation, Springer, vol. 34(3), pages 301-318, May.
    7. Nees Jan Eck & Ludo Waltman, 2017. "Citation-based clustering of publications using CitNetExplorer and VOSviewer," Scientometrics, Springer;Akadémiai Kiadó, vol. 111(2), pages 1053-1070, May.
    8. Cherry, Christopher & Cervero, Robert, 2007. "Use characteristics and mode choice behavior of electric bike users in China," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 14(3), pages 247-257, May.
    9. Philippe Mongeon & Adèle Paul-Hus, 2016. "The journal coverage of Web of Science and Scopus: a comparative analysis," Scientometrics, Springer;Akadémiai Kiadó, vol. 106(1), pages 213-228, January.
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    11. Gianluca Marinaro & Zhuangying Xu & Zhengpu Chen & Chenxi Li & Yizhou Mao & Andrea Vacca, 2018. "The PurdueTracer: An Energy-Efficient Human-Powered Hydraulic Bicycle with Flexible Operation and Software Aids," Energies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 11(2), pages 1-24, January.
    12. Geoffrey Rose, 2012. "E-bikes and urban transportation: emerging issues and unresolved questions," Transportation, Springer, vol. 39(1), pages 81-96, January.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Esther Salmerón-Manzano & Francisco Manzano-Agugliaro, 2018. "The Higher Education Sustainability through Virtual Laboratories: The Spanish University as Case of Study," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 10(11), pages 1-22, November.
    2. Anna Brdulak & Grażyna Chaberek & Jacek Jagodziński, 2020. "Determination of Electricity Demand by Personal Light Electric Vehicles (PLEVs): An Example of e-Motor Scooters in the Context of Large City Management in Poland," Energies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 13(1), pages 1-18, January.
    3. Wojciech Sałabun & Krzysztof Palczewski & Jarosław Wątróbski, 2019. "Multicriteria Approach to Sustainable Transport Evaluation under Incomplete Knowledge: Electric Bikes Case Study," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 11(12), pages 1-19, June.
    4. Esther Salmerón-Manzano & Francisco Manzano-Agugliaro, 2018. "Unaccompanied Minors: Worldwide Research Perspectives," Publications, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 7(1), pages 1-15, December.
    5. Esther Salmerón-Manzano & Francisco Manzano-Agugliaro, 2019. "The Role of Smart Contracts in Sustainability: Worldwide Research Trends," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 11(11), pages 1-16, May.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    batteries; electric bicycle; electric vehicle; energy saving; transportation;

    JEL classification:

    • Q - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics
    • Q0 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - General
    • Q4 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Energy
    • Q40 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Energy - - - General
    • Q41 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Energy - - - Demand and Supply; Prices
    • Q42 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Energy - - - Alternative Energy Sources
    • Q43 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Energy - - - Energy and the Macroeconomy
    • Q47 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Energy - - - Energy Forecasting
    • Q48 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Energy - - - Government Policy
    • Q49 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Energy - - - Other

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