The Next Generation Feedstock of Biofuel: Jatropha or Chlorella as Assessed by Their Life-Cycle Inventories
Promising energy crops such as Jatropha curcas Linnaeus ( JCL ), which are planted on marginal lands, or microalgae such as Chlorella , which are cultivated in ponds located on mudflats or deserts, have been regarded with high hopes to solve the shortage of food crops and increase the amount of biodiesel (Fatty Acid Methyl Ester, FAME) production. However, the annual yields of biomass and transport fuels (t/ha) of both are still unclear and often exaggerated in the literature. Large portions of JCL biomass, including tree trunks and leaves, can also be used to generate electricity along with FAME, which is produced from seed lipids. Meanwhile, lipid extracted algae (LEA) are composed of proteins, polysaccharides, and lipids other than glycerides which are unable to be esterified to form FAME and much more abundant in the microalgae than oil cake in the oil crops. Therefore, it has been strongly suggested that not only transesterification or esterification but also Fischer-Tropsch (FT) process and bio-electricity generation should be considered as routes to produce biofuels. Otherwise, the yield of biofuel would be extremely low using either JCL or Chlorella as feedstock. The Life-Cycle Inventories (LCI) of the biofuel processes with whole biomass of JCL and Chlorella were compared based on their net energy ratio (NER) and CO 2 emission saving (CES). It was shown that the technological improvement of irrigation, cultivation, and processing for either economic-crops or microalgae were all necessary to meet the requirements of commercial biofuel production.
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Timilsina, Govinda R. & Shrestha, Ashish, 2011. "How much hope should we have for biofuels?," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 36(4), pages 2055-2069.
- World Bank & Food and Agriculture Organization & International Fund for Agricultural Development, 2009. "Gender in Agriculture Sourcebook," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 6603, April.
- Carriquiry, Miguel A. & Dong, Fengxia & Du, Xiaodong & Elobeid, Amani & Fabiosa, Jacinto F. & Hart, Chad E. & Hayes, Dermot J. & Kovarik, Karen P. & Tokgoz, Simla & Wailes, Eric J. & Chavez, Edward & , 2009. "FAPRI 2009 U.S. And World Agricultural Outlook," Staff General Research Papers 13062, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
- Ou, Xunmin & Zhang, Xiliang & Chang, Shiyan & Guo, Qingfang, 2009. "Energy consumption and GHG emissions of six biofuel pathways by LCA in (the) People's Republic of China," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 86(Supplemen), pages S197-S208, November.
- Basili, Marcello & Fontini, Fulvio, 2012.
"Biofuel from Jatropha curcas: Environmental sustainability and option value,"
Elsevier, vol. 78(C), pages 1-8.
- Marcello Basili & Fulvio Fontini, 2009. "Biofuel from Jatrofa Curcas: environmental sustainability and option value," Department of Economic Policy, Finance and Development (DEPFID) University of Siena 1009, Department of Economic Policy, Finance and Development (DEPFID), University of Siena.
- Pandey, Krishan K. & Pragya, Namita & Sahoo, P.K., 2011. "Life cycle assessment of small-scale high-input Jatropha biodiesel production in India," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 88(12), pages 4831-4839.
- Yanfen, Liao & Zehao, Huang & Xiaoqian, Ma, 2012. "Energy analysis and environmental impacts of microalgal biodiesel in China," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 45(C), pages 142-151.
- Federico Bonaglia, 2009. "Zambia: Sustaining Agricultural Diversification," OECD Journal: General Papers, OECD Publishing, vol. 2009(2), pages 103-131.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:gam:jagris:v:4:y:2014:i:3:p:217-230:d:37711. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (XML Conversion Team)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.