IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/fip/fedlrv/91429.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Understanding the Gender Earnings Gap: Hours Worked, Occupational Sorting, and Labor Market Experience

Author

Listed:
  • Maria E. Canon
  • Limor Golan
  • Cody A. Smith

Abstract

This article documents life-cycle gender differences in labor market outcomes using longitudinal data of a cohort of individuals from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979. As in other datasets, the gender earnings gap increases with age. We find that hours worked and labor market experience are the most substantial observable variables in explaining the gender pay gap. We also focus on patterns in occupational changes over the life cycle, as a large part of pay growth occurs when workers change jobs. We find that college-educated men, on average, move into occupations with higher task complexity. We further show that women are less likely to change occupations. Moreover, on average, pay grows when workers change occupations, but the growth is smaller for women. Finally, we discuss theories that are consistent with the patterns we document.

Suggested Citation

  • Maria E. Canon & Limor Golan & Cody A. Smith, 2021. "Understanding the Gender Earnings Gap: Hours Worked, Occupational Sorting, and Labor Market Experience," Review, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, vol. 103(2), pages 175-205, April.
  • Handle: RePEc:fip:fedlrv:91429
    DOI: 10.20955/r.103.175-205
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://files.stlouisfed.org/research/publications/review/2021/04/15/understanding-the-gender-earnings-gap-hours-worked-occupational-sorting-and-labor-market-experience.pdf
    File Function: Article Full Text
    Download Restriction: no

    File URL: https://research.stlouisfed.org/publications/review/2021/04/15/full-issue.pdf
    File Function: Issue Full Text
    Download Restriction: no

    File URL: https://libkey.io/10.20955/r.103.175-205?utm_source=ideas
    LibKey link: if access is restricted and if your library uses this service, LibKey will redirect you to where you can use your library subscription to access this item
    ---><---

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Richard G. Anderson & Yang Liu, 2013. "How low can you go? negative interest rates and investors’ flight to safety," The Regional Economist, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, issue Jan.
    2. Gauti Eggertsson & Bulat Gafarov & Saroj Bhatarai, 2014. "Time Consistency and the Duration of Government Debt: A Signalling Theory of Quantitative Easing," 2014 Meeting Papers 1292, Society for Economic Dynamics.
    3. Kang, Dae Woong & Ligthart, Nick & Mody, Ashoka, 2015. "The European Central Bank: Building a shelter in a storm," CFS Working Paper Series 527, Center for Financial Studies (CFS).
    4. Florian Heider & Farzad Saidi & Glenn Schepens, 2019. "Life below Zero: Bank Lending under Negative Policy Rates," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 32(10), pages 3728-3761.
    5. Schepens, Glenn, 2018. "Bank lending under negative policy rates," Research Bulletin, European Central Bank, vol. 43.
    6. Antonio Diez de los Rios & Maral Shamloo, 2017. "Quantitative Easing and Long-Term Yields in Small Open Economies," Staff Working Papers 17-26, Bank of Canada.
    7. repec:ecb:ecbrbu:2018:0043:1 is not listed on IDEAS
    8. Kenneth D. Garbade & James J. McAndrews, 2012. "If Interest Rates Go Negative . . . Or, Be Careful What You Wish For," Liberty Street Economics 20120829, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
    9. Kang Dae Woong & Nick Ligthart & Ashoka Mody, 2015. "The European Central Bank: Building a Shelter in a Storm," Working Papers 248, Princeton University, Department of Economics, Center for Economic Policy Studies..
    10. William R. Emmons & Jacob Haas & Christopher J. Neely, 2020. "Responses of International Central Banks to the COVID-19 Crisis," Review, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, vol. 102(4), pages 338-384, October.
    11. Richard G. Anderson & Charles S. Gascon & Yang Liu, 2010. "Doubling your monetary base and surviving: some international experience," Review, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, vol. 92(Nov), pages 481-506.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Violeta A. Gutkowski, 2021. "Lockdown Responses to COVID-19," Review, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, vol. 103(2), pages 127-151, April.
    2. Evan Karson & Christopher J. Neely, 2021. "More Stories of Unconventional Monetary Policy," Review, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, vol. 103(2), pages 207-270, April.
    3. Fabian Schär, 2021. "Decentralized Finance: On Blockchain- and Smart Contract-Based Financial Markets," Review, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, vol. 103(2), pages 153-174, April.
    4. Lopez, Jose A. & Rose, Andrew K. & Spiegel, Mark M., 2020. "Why have negative nominal interest rates had such a small effect on bank performance? Cross country evidence," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 124(C).
    5. Czudaj, Robert L., 2020. "Is the negative interest rate policy effective?," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 174(C), pages 75-86.
    6. Edison Yu, 2016. "Did quantitative easing work?," Economic Insights, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia, vol. 1(1), pages 5-13, January.
    7. Ashoka Mody & Milan Nedeljkovic, 2018. "Central Bank Policies and Financial Markets: Lessons from the Euro Crisis," Working Papers 253, Princeton University, Department of Economics, Center for Economic Policy Studies..
    8. Ashoka Mody & Milan Nedeljkovic, 2018. "Central Bank Policies and Financial Markets: Lessons from the Euro Crisis," CESifo Working Paper Series 7400, CESifo.
    9. Citera, Emanuele & Sau, Lino, 2019. "Complexity, Conventions and Instability: the role of monetary policy," Department of Economics and Statistics Cognetti de Martiis. Working Papers 201924, University of Turin.
    10. Lloyd, S. P., 2017. "Unconventional Monetary Policy and the Interest Rate Channel: Signalling and Portfolio Rebalancing," Cambridge Working Papers in Economics 1735, Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge.
    11. Iovino, Luigi & Sergeyev, Dmitriy, 2018. "Central Bank Balance Sheet Policies Without Rational Expectations," CEPR Discussion Papers 13100, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    12. Bubeck, Johannes & Maddaloni, Angela & Peydró, José-Luis, 2020. "Negative Monetary Policy Rates and Systemic Banks' Risk‐Taking: Evidence from the Euro Area Securities Register," EconStor Open Access Articles and Book Chapters, ZBW - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, pages 197-231.
    13. Carletti, Elena & De Marco, Filippo & Ioannidou, Vasso & Sette, Enrico, 2021. "Banks as patient lenders: Evidence from a tax reform," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 141(1), pages 6-26.
    14. Josef Schroth, 2021. "Optimal Monetary and Macroprudential Policies," Staff Working Papers 21-21, Bank of Canada.
    15. Alves, Nuno & Bonfim, Diana & Soares, Carla, 2021. "Surviving the perfect storm: The role of the lender of last resort☆," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 47(C).
    16. Faia, Ester & Ottaviano, Gianmarco & Sanchez Arjona, Irene, 2017. "International Expansion and Riskiness of Banks," CEPR Discussion Papers 11951, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    17. Brubakk, Leif & ter Ellen, Saskia & Robstad, Ørjan & Xu, Hong, 2019. "The macroeconomic effects of forward communication," Working Paper 2019/20, Norges Bank.
    18. Sebastian Doerr & Thomas Drechsel & Donggyu Lee, 2021. "Income inequality, financial intermediation, and small firms," BIS Working Papers 944, Bank for International Settlements.
    19. Jeffrey R. Campbell & Thomas B. King & Anna Orlik & Rebecca Zarutskie, 2020. "Issues Regarding the Use of the Policy Rate Tool," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2020-070, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    20. Barthélemy, Jean & Mengus, Eric, 2018. "The signaling effect of raising inflation," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 178(C), pages 488-516.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    diversity; gender earnings gap; labor market outcomes;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
    • J24 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Human Capital; Skills; Occupational Choice; Labor Productivity
    • J31 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs - - - Wage Level and Structure; Wage Differentials

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:fip:fedlrv:91429. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/frbslus.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/frbslus.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.