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Dynamics of electric bike ownership and use in Kunming, China

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  • Cherry, Christopher R.
  • Yang, Hongtai
  • Jones, Luke R.
  • He, Min

Abstract

The rapid adoption of electric bikes (e-bikes) (~150 million in 10 years) has come with debate over their role in China's urban transportation system. While there has been some research quantifying impacts of e-bikes on the transportation system, there has been little work tracking e-bike use patterns over time. This paper investigates e-bike use over a 6-year period. Four bi-annual travel diary surveys of e-bike users were conducted between 2006 and 2012 in Kunming, China. Choice models were developed to investigate factors influencing mode-transition and motorization pathways. As expected, income and vehicle ownership strongly influence car-based transitions. Younger and female respondents were more likely to choose car-based modes. Systematic and unobserved changes over time (time-dynamics) favor car-based modes, with the exception of previous car users who already shifted away from cars being less likely to revert to cars over time. E-bikes act as an intermediate mode, interrupting the transition from bicycle to bus and from bus to car. Over 6 years, e-bikes are displacing prospective bus (65→55%), car/taxi (15→24%) and bicycle (19→7%) trips. Over 40% of e-bike riders now have household car access so e-bikes are effectively replacing many urban car trips.

Suggested Citation

  • Cherry, Christopher R. & Yang, Hongtai & Jones, Luke R. & He, Min, 2016. "Dynamics of electric bike ownership and use in Kunming, China," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 45(C), pages 127-135.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:trapol:v:45:y:2016:i:c:p:127-135
    DOI: 10.1016/j.tranpol.2015.09.007
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

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    4. Lin, Xiao & Wells, Peter & Sovacool, Benjamin K., 2018. "The death of a transport regime? The future of electric bicycles and transportation pathways for sustainable mobility in China," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 132(C), pages 255-267.
    5. Ou, Hui & Tang, Tie-Qiao & Rui, Ying-Xu & Zhou, Jie-Ming, 2018. "Electric bicycle management and control at a signalized intersection," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 512(C), pages 1000-1008.
    6. Mihai Machedon-Pisu & Paul Nicolae Borza, 2019. "Are Personal Electric Vehicles Sustainable? A Hybrid E-Bike Case Study," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 12(1), pages 1-24, December.
    7. de Kruijf, Joost & van der Waerden, Peter & Feng, Tao & Böcker, Lars & van Lierop, Dea & Ettema, Dick & Dijst, Martin, 2021. "Integrated weather effects on e-cycling in daily commuting: A longitudinal evaluation of weather effects on e-cycling in the Netherlands," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 148(C), pages 305-315.
    8. Yide Liu & Ivan Ka Wai Lai, 2020. "The Effects of Environmental Policy and the Perception of Electric Motorcycles on the Acceptance of Electric Motorcycles: An Empirical Study in Macau," SAGE Open, , vol. 10(1), pages 21582440198, January.
    9. Changxi Ma & Jibiao Zhou & Dong Yang & Yuanyuan Fan, 2020. "Research on the Relationship between the Individual Characteristics of Electric Bike Riders and Illegal Speeding Behavior: A Questionnaire-Based Study," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 12(3), pages 1-12, January.
    10. Sarmad Zaman Rajper & Johan Albrecht, 2020. "Prospects of Electric Vehicles in the Developing Countries: A Literature Review," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 12(5), pages 1-19, March.
    11. Ou, Hui & Tang, Tie-Qiao & Rui, Ying-Xu & Zhou, Jie-Ming, 2018. "Modeling electric bicycle’s abnormal behavior at a signalized intersection," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 511(C), pages 218-231.
    12. Tang, Tie-Qiao & Luo, Xiao-Feng & Zhang, Jian & Chen, Liang, 2018. "Modeling electric bicycle’s lane-changing and retrograde behaviors," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 490(C), pages 1377-1386.
    13. Nematchoua, ModesteKameni & Deuse, Caroline & Cools, Mario & Reiter, Sigrid, 2020. "Evaluation of the potential of classic and electric bicycle commuting as an impetus for the transition towards environmentally sustainable cities: A case study of the university campuses in Liege, Bel," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 119(C).
    14. Tyfield, David & Zuev, Dennis, 2018. "Stasis, dynamism and emergence of the e-mobility system in China: A power relational perspective," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 126(C), pages 259-270.
    15. John Humphrey & Ke Ding & Mai Fujita & Shiro Hioki & Koichiro Kimura, 2018. "Platforms, Innovation and Capability Development in the Chinese Domestic Market," The European Journal of Development Research, Palgrave Macmillan;European Association of Development Research and Training Institutes (EADI), vol. 30(3), pages 408-423, July.
    16. Genikomsakis, Konstantinos N. & Galatoulas, Nikolaos-Fivos & Ioakimidis, Christos S., 2021. "Towards the development of a hotel-based e-bike rental service: Results from a stated preference survey and techno-economic analysis," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 215(PA).
    17. Kaplan, Sigal & Wrzesinska, Dagmara K. & Prato, Carlo G., 2018. "The role of human needs in the intention to use conventional and electric bicycle sharing in a driving-oriented country," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 71(C), pages 138-146.
    18. Zhiwei Chen & Yucong Hu & Jutint Li & Xing Wu, 2020. "Optimal Deployment of Electric Bicycle Sharing Stations: Model Formulation and Solution Technique," Networks and Spatial Economics, Springer, vol. 20(1), pages 99-136, March.

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