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The impact of government failure on tourism in the Philippines


  • Manuela, Wilfred S.
  • de Vera, Manuel J.


While the Philippines aspires to be one of the top tourist destinations in Southeast Asia, self-inflicted wounds like the failure of the government to comply with international aviation safety standards may derail the country from achieving its goals. This article estimates the short- and long-term impact of the US FAA downgrade of the Philippine civil aviation system in 2008 and the EU ban of Philippine carriers in 2010 on tourist expenditures, arrivals, and length of stay using monthly time series data. The econometric model, consisting of three equations due to the endogeneity of the tourist arrivals and length of stay variables in the tourist expenditures equation, is estimated simultaneously using the generalized method of moments. The results indicate that the US FAA downgrade and the EU ban impact monthly tourist receipts negatively in the short term while the downgrade also impacts tourist expenditures in the long term. Moreover, the ban impacts length of stay negatively in the short and long term while the downgrade impacts length of stay negatively only in the long term. The substantial decline in tourism receipts from 2008 to 2010 despite an increasing trend in tourist arrivals is due to the shorter stay of tourists, indicating that high-spending tourists have not returned following the downgrade and ban.

Suggested Citation

  • Manuela, Wilfred S. & de Vera, Manuel J., 2015. "The impact of government failure on tourism in the Philippines," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 43(C), pages 11-22.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:trapol:v:43:y:2015:i:c:p:11-22
    DOI: 10.1016/j.tranpol.2015.05.016

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Hansen, Lars Peter, 1982. "Large Sample Properties of Generalized Method of Moments Estimators," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 50(4), pages 1029-1054, July.
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    3. Chia-Ling Chang & Thanchanok Khamkaew & Michael McAleer & Roengchai Tansuchat, 2009. "Interdependence of International Tourism Demand and Volatility in Leading ASEAN Destinations," CIRJE F-Series CIRJE-F-687, CIRJE, Faculty of Economics, University of Tokyo.
    4. Deluna, Roperto Jr & Jeon, Narae, 2014. "Determinants of International Tourism Demand for the Philippines: An Augmented Gravity Model Approach," MPRA Paper 55294, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    5. Russell Smyth & Ingrid Nielsen & Vinod Mishra, 2009. "'I've been to Bali too' (and I will be going back): are terrorist shocks to Bali's tourist arrivals permanent or transitory?," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 41(11), pages 1367-1378.
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    7. Paresh Kumar Narayan, 2005. "The structure of tourist expenditure in Fiji: evidence from unit root structural break tests," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 37(10), pages 1157-1161.
    8. Porter, Julie, 2011. "Regional Economic Resilience and the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill: The Case of New Orleans' Tourism and Fishing Clusters," Spatial and Organizational Dynamics Discussion Papers 2011-12, CIEO-Research Centre for Spatial and Organizational Dynamics, University of Algarve.
    9. Wilfred Dolfsma, 2011. "Government Failure — Four Types," Journal of Economic Issues, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 45(3), pages 593-604.
    10. A. Özlem Önder & Aykan Candemir & Neşe Kumral, 2009. "An Empirical Analysis of the Determinants of International Tourism Demand: The Case of Izmir," European Planning Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 17(10), pages 1525-1533, April.
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    More about this item


    C32; L83; L93; Tourism; Air transport safety; US FAA downgrade; EU ban;

    JEL classification:

    • C32 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Time-Series Models; Dynamic Quantile Regressions; Dynamic Treatment Effect Models; Diffusion Processes; State Space Models
    • L83 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Services - - - Sports; Gambling; Restaurants; Recreation; Tourism
    • L93 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Transportation and Utilities - - - Air Transportation


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