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Urban upgrading and levels of interpersonal violence in Cape Town, South Africa: The violence prevention through urban upgrading programme

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  • Matzopoulos, Richard
  • Bloch, Kim
  • Lloyd, Sam
  • Berens, Chris
  • Bowman, Brett
  • Myers, Jonny
  • Thompson, Mary Lou

Abstract

Violence Prevention through Urban Upgrading applies second generation crime prevention through environmental design, which includes built environment interventions alongside social programmes and community participation initiatives in Khayelitsha, one of South Africa's poorest and most violent suburbs. We conducted a retrospective population-based study using survey data from 3625 geo-located households collected between 2013 and 2015 and mapped alcohol outlets to assess the association between the intervention and reported experience of violence. The analysis used generalised linear models to estimate and compare selfreported experience of violence adjusting for known confounders, which included area and household deprivation as well as alcohol outlet density. Living in close proximity to the upgraded urban infrastructure was associated with a 34% reduced exposure to interpersonal violence after adjusting for confounders. This association was consistent across age and gender. Access to additional social programmes alongside the urban upgrading intervention was not associated with further reduction in risk. The association between urban-upgrading and reduced exposure to interpersonal violence supports its inclusion among interventions in national and local crime prevention policies to address social and structural environments.

Suggested Citation

  • Matzopoulos, Richard & Bloch, Kim & Lloyd, Sam & Berens, Chris & Bowman, Brett & Myers, Jonny & Thompson, Mary Lou, 2020. "Urban upgrading and levels of interpersonal violence in Cape Town, South Africa: The violence prevention through urban upgrading programme," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 255(C).
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:socmed:v:255:y:2020:i:c:s0277953620301970
    DOI: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2020.112978
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Matzopoulos, Richard & Bowman, Brett & Mathews, Shanaaz & Myers, Jonny, 2010. "Applying upstream interventions for interpersonal violence prevention: An uphill struggle in low- to middle-income contexts," Health Policy, Elsevier, vol. 97(1), pages 62-70, September.
    2. Brett Bowman & Sherianne Kramer & Sulaiman Salau & Ella Kotze & Richard Matzopoulos, 2018. "Linking criminal contexts to injury outcomes: findings and lessons from a national study of robbery in South Africa," International Journal of Public Health, Springer;Swiss School of Public Health (SSPH+), vol. 63(8), pages 977-985, November.
    3. Matzopoulos, R.G. & Thompson, M.L. & Myers, J.E., 2014. "Firearm and nonfirearm homicide in 5 South African cities: A retrospective population-based study," American Journal of Public Health, American Public Health Association, vol. 104(3), pages 455-460.
    4. Brandon C. Welsh & David P. Farrington, 2008. "Effects of Closed Circuit Television Surveillance on Crime," Campbell Systematic Reviews, John Wiley & Sons, vol. 4(1), pages 1-73.
    5. De Silva, Mary J & Harpham, Trudy & Tuan, Tran & Bartolini, Rosario & Penny, Mary E & Huttly, Sharon R, 2006. "Psychometric and cognitive validation of a social capital measurement tool in Peru and Vietnam," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 62(4), pages 941-953, February.
    6. Alonso, José M. & Andrews, Rhys & Jorda, Vanesa, 2019. "Do neighbourhood renewal programs reduce crime rates? Evidence from England," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 110(C), pages 51-69.
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