IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/
MyIDEAS: Login to save this article or follow this journal

Firm size, timing, and earnings management of seasoned equity offerings

  • Shu, Pei-Gi
  • Chiang, Sue-Jane
Registered author(s):

    Rangan (1998), and Teoh, Wong, and Rao (1998) maintain that the short-term overperformance and long-term underperformance of seasoned equity offerings (SEOs) are due to earnings management, whereas Loughran and Ritter (1997), Baker and Wurgler (2002) and Cohen, Papadaki, and Siougle (2007) attribute them to the timing of share placement by issuing firms. The present authors propose that large and small firms treat their seasoned equity differently: small firms time the market, whereas large firms use discretionary accruals to increase their proceeds. We verify this hypothesis using a sample of 463 firms listed on the Taiwan stock exchange. Specifically, for small firms, the timing effect is positively correlated with the firm's short-term wealth and negatively correlated with its long-term wealth. For large firms, earnings management (proxied as discretionary accruals gauged by the modified Jone's model) is positively correlated with short-term wealth and negatively correlated with long-term wealth. The separating equilibrium is unlikely to be conditioned by the issuing firm's flotation methods.

    If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1059056013000464
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.

    Article provided by Elsevier in its journal International Review of Economics & Finance.

    Volume (Year): 29 (2014)
    Issue (Month): C ()
    Pages: 177-194

    as
    in new window

    Handle: RePEc:eee:reveco:v:29:y:2014:i:c:p:177-194
    Contact details of provider: Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/inca/620165

    References listed on IDEAS
    Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

    as in new window
    1. Pound, John, 1988. "Proxy contests and the efficiency of shareholder oversight," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 20(1-2), pages 237-265, January.
    2. Hanley, Kathleen Weiss & Wilhelm Jr., William J., 1995. "Evidence on the strategic allocation of initial public offerings," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 37(2), pages 239-257, February.
    3. Richard B. Carter & Frederick H. Dark & Ajai K. Singh, 1998. "Underwriter Reputation, Initial Returns, and the Long-Run Performance of IPO Stocks," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 53(1), pages 285-311, 02.
    4. Jeffrey A. Wurgler & Malcolm P. Baker, 2001. "Market Timing and Capital Structure," Yale School of Management Working Papers ysm181, Yale School of Management.
    5. Brav, Alon & Geczy, Christopher & Gompers, Paul A., 2000. "Is the abnormal return following equity issuances anomalous?," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 56(2), pages 209-249, May.
    6. Lin, Ji-Chai & Wu, YiLin, 2013. "SEO timing and liquidity risk," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 19(C), pages 95-118.
    7. DeAngelo, Harry & DeAngelo, Linda & Skinner, Douglas J., 1994. "Accounting choice in troubled companies," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 17(1-2), pages 113-143, January.
    8. Fama, Eugene F, et al, 1969. "The Adjustment of Stock Prices to New Information," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 10(1), pages 1-21, February.
    9. Malcolm Baker & Jeremy C. Stein & Jeffrey Wurgler, 2003. "When Does The Market Matter? Stock Prices And The Investment Of Equity-Dependent Firms," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 118(3), pages 969-1005, August.
    10. Graham, John R. & Harvey, Campbell R., 2001. "The theory and practice of corporate finance: evidence from the field," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 60(2-3), pages 187-243, May.
    11. Chan, Louis K C & Hamao, Yasushi & Lakonishok, Josef, 1991. " Fundamentals and Stock Returns in Japan," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 46(5), pages 1739-64, December.
    12. Davis, James L, 1994. " The Cross-Section of Realized Stock Returns: The Pre-COMPUSTAT Evidence," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 49(5), pages 1579-93, December.
    13. Masulis, Ronald W. & Korwar, Ashok N., 1986. "Seasoned equity offerings : An empirical investigation," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 15(1-2), pages 91-118.
    14. Barry, Christopher B, 1989. " Initial Public Offering Underpricing: The Issuer's View--A Comment," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 44(4), pages 1099-1103, September.
    15. Edel Barnes & Martin Walker, 2006. "The Seasoned-Equity Issues of UK Firms: Market Reaction and Issuance Method Choice," Journal of Business Finance & Accounting, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 33(1-2), pages 45-78.
    16. Eugene F. Fama & Kenneth R. French, 2008. "Dissecting Anomalies," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 63(4), pages 1653-1678, 08.
    17. Ibbotson, Roger G & Jaffe, Jeffrey F, 1975. ""Hot Issue" Markets," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 30(4), pages 1027-42, September.
    18. Jeffrey Pontiff & Artemiza Woodgate, 2008. "Share Issuance and Cross-sectional Returns," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 63(2), pages 921-945, 04.
    19. Robin Greenwood & Samuel G. Hanson, 2012. "Share Issuance and Factor Timing," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 67(2), pages 761-798, 04.
    20. Shleifer, Andrei & Vishny, Robert W., 1986. "Large Shareholders and Corporate Control," Scholarly Articles 3606237, Harvard University Department of Economics.
    21. Ho, Keng-Yu, 2005. "Long-horizon abnormal performance following rights issues and placings: Additional evidence from the U.K. market," Review of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 14(1), pages 25-45.
    22. Loughran, Tim & Ritter, Jay R, 1997. " The Operating Performance of Firms Conducting Seasoned Equity Offerings," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 52(5), pages 1823-50, December.
    23. Jun-Koo Kang & Yong-Cheol Kim & Rene M. Stulz, 1996. "The Underreaction Hypothesis and the New Issue Puzzle: Evidence from Japan," NBER Working Papers 5819, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    24. Brown, Gregory W. & Cliff, Michael T., 2004. "Investor sentiment and the near-term stock market," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 11(1), pages 1-27, January.
    25. Kehluh Wang & Yi-Hsuan Chen & Szu-Wei Huang, 2008. "Agency Theory and Flotation Methods in Seasoned Equity Offerings: The Case in Taiwan," Review of Pacific Basin Financial Markets and Policies (RPBFMP), World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., vol. 11(04), pages 555-567.
    26. Elliott, William B. & Koeter-Kant, Johanna & Warr, Richard S., 2007. "A valuation-based test of market timing," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 13(1), pages 112-128, March.
    27. Perry, Susan E. & Williams, Thomas H., 1994. "Earnings management preceding management buyout offers," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(2), pages 157-179, September.
    28. Denis, David J. & Sarin, Atulya, 2001. "Is the Market Surprised by Poor Earnings Realizations following Seasoned Equity Offerings?," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 36(02), pages 169-193, June.
    29. Chen, Hsuan-Chi & Shu, Pei-Gi & Chiang, Sue-Jane, 2011. "The choice between bookbuilding and fixed-price offering: Evidence from SEOs in Taiwan," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 21(1), pages 28-48, February.
    30. Wu, YiLin, 2004. "The choice of equity-selling mechanisms," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 74(1), pages 93-119, October.
    31. DeAngelo, Linda Elizabeth, 1988. "Managerial competition, information costs, and corporate governance : The use of accounting performance measures in proxy contests," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 10(1), pages 3-36, January.
    32. Chen, Dar-Hsin & Chen, Chun-Da & Chen, Jianguo & Huang, Yu-Fang, 2013. "Panel data analyses of the pecking order theory and the market timing theory of capital structure in Taiwan," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 27(C), pages 1-13.
    33. Loughran, Tim & Ritter, Jay R, 1995. " The New Issues Puzzle," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 50(1), pages 23-51, March.
    34. Malcolm Baker & Ryan Taliaferro & Jeffrey Wurgler *, 2006. "Predicting Returns with Managerial Decision Variables: Is There a Small-Sample Bias?," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 61(4), pages 1711-1730, 08.
    35. Roni Michaely & Wayne H. Shaw, 1995. "Does the Choice of Auditor Convey Quality in an Initial Public Offering?," Financial Management, Financial Management Association, vol. 24(4), Winter.
    36. Rangan, Srinivasan, 1998. "Earnings management and the performance of seasoned equity offerings," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 50(1), pages 101-122, October.
    37. Aggrawal, Reena & Prabhala, Nagpurnanand & Puri, Manju, 2002. "Institutional Allocation in Initial Public Offerings: Empirical Evidence," Research Papers 1747, Stanford University, Graduate School of Business.
    38. Mola, Simona & Loughran, Tim, 2004. "Discounting and Clustering in Seasoned Equity Offering Prices," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 39(01), pages 1-23, March.
    39. Andrikopoulos, Panagiotis, 2009. "Seasoned equity offerings, operating performance and overconfidence: Evidence from the UK," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 61(3), pages 189-215.
    40. Robert A. Korajczyk & Deborah J. Lucas & Robert L. McDonald, 1989. "Understanding Stock Price Behavior around the Time of Equity Issues," NBER Working Papers 3170, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    41. DeFond, Mark L. & Jiambalvo, James, 1994. "Debt covenant violation and manipulation of accruals," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 17(1-2), pages 145-176, January.
    42. Asquith, Paul & Mullins, David Jr., 1986. "Equity issues and offering dilution," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 15(1-2), pages 61-89.
    43. Healy, Paul M., 1985. "The effect of bonus schemes on accounting decisions," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 7(1-3), pages 85-107, April.
    44. Spiess, D. Katherine & Affleck-Graves, John, 1995. "Underperformance in long-run stock returns following seasoned equity offerings," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 38(3), pages 243-267, July.
    45. Eckbo, B. Espen & Masulis, Ronald W., 1992. "Adverse selection and the rights offer paradox," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(3), pages 293-332, December.
    46. Ritter, Jay R, 1984. "The "Hot Issue" Market of 1980," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 57(2), pages 215-40, April.
    47. Fama, Eugene F & French, Kenneth R, 1992. " The Cross-Section of Expected Stock Returns," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 47(2), pages 427-65, June.
    48. Reena Aggarwal & Nagpurnanand R. Prabhala & Manju Puri, 2002. "Institutional Allocation in Initial Public Offerings: Empirical Evidence," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 57(3), pages 1421-1442, 06.
    49. Ritter, Jay R, 1991. " The Long-run Performance of Initial Public Offerings," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 46(1), pages 3-27, March.
    50. Wruck, Karen Hopper, 1989. "Equity ownership concentration and firm value : Evidence from private equity financings," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 23(1), pages 3-28, June.
    51. Warfield, Terry D. & Wild, John J. & Wild, Kenneth L., 1995. "Managerial ownership, accounting choices, and informativeness of earnings," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 20(1), pages 61-91, July.
    52. Sandra Cohen & Afroditi Papadaki & Georgia Siougle, 2007. "SEOs in a 'Hot Market': evidence of timing," Applied Financial Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 17(14), pages 1179-1190.
    53. Carter, Richard B & Manaster, Steven, 1990. " Initial Public Offerings and Underwriter Reputation," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 45(4), pages 1045-67, September.
    54. Reena Aggarwal & Nagpurnanand R. Prabhala & Manju Puri, 2002. "Institutional Allocation In Initial Public Offerings: Empirical Evidence," NBER Working Papers 9070, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    55. Brous, Peter A. & Datar, Vinay & Kini, Omseh, 2001. "Is the Market Optimistic about the Future Earnings of Seasoned Equity Offering Firms?," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 36(02), pages 141-168, June.
    56. Huang, Rongbing & Ritter, Jay R., 2009. "Testing Theories of Capital Structure and Estimating the Speed of Adjustment," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 44(02), pages 237-271, April.
    57. Ching, Ken M.L. & Firth, Michael & Rui, Oliver M., 2006. "The information content of insider trading around seasoned equity offerings," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 14(1), pages 91-117, January.
    58. Demsetz, Harold, 1986. "Corporate Control, Insider Trading, and Rates of Return," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 76(2), pages 313-16, May.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

    When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:reveco:v:29:y:2014:i:c:p:177-194. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Zhang, Lei)

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

    If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.