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Development and restructuring of Turkey's electricity sector: a review


  • Hepbasli, Arif


With a young and growing population, low per capita electricity consumption and rapid urbanization, Turkey for nearly two decades has been one of the fastest growing power markets in the world. The main objective of the present study is to review many aspects of the Turkish electricity sector, including its historical development, energy related emissions, and energy and exergy utilization efficiencies. With the foundation of the Republic in 1923, Turkey's electricity sector has grown rapidly from 32.8Â MW to 26.1Â GW at the beginning of 2000. During this period, different governments implemented various strategies and policies for the Turkish electricity industry. In the 1980s, a new era for the industry and regulations started, allowing the installation of electricity power plants. Regulations allowed different investment models and the decision was taken highly to attract foreign investors. Restructuring of the electricity sector in Turkey has started with the establishment of the Energy Market Regulatory Authority (EMRA) upon law No. 4628 which came into force on 3 March 2001. The Energy Market Regulatory Board, which runs the EMRA, was commissioned on November 19, 2001. In May 2002, the EMRA issued drafts of the Energy Market Licensing Regulation and the Electricity Market Tariffs Regulation, and these regulations went into effect in August 2002. The Electricity Market Implementation Manual was issued by the EMRA in April 2003. At present, not only the electricity sector, but also the whole Turkish energy sector is in a dynamic change.

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  • Hepbasli, Arif, 2005. "Development and restructuring of Turkey's electricity sector: a review," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 9(4), pages 311-343, August.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:rensus:v:9:y:2005:i:4:p:311-343

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Bagdadioglu, Necmiddin & Odyakmaz, Necmi, 2009. "Turkish electricity reform," Utilities Policy, Elsevier, vol. 17(1), pages 144-152, March.
    2. Dinçer, Furkan, 2011. "Overview of the photovoltaic technology status and perspective in Turkey," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 15(8), pages 3768-3779.
    3. Balat, Havva, 2008. "Contribution of green energy sources to electrical power production of Turkey: A review," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 12(6), pages 1652-1666, August.
    4. Bahçe, Serdal & Taymaz, Erol, 2008. "The impact of electricity market liberalization in Turkey: "Free consumer" and distributional monopoly cases," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 30(4), pages 1603-1624, July.
    5. Balat, Mustafa, 2008. "Energy consumption and economic growth in Turkey during the past two decades," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 36(1), pages 118-127, January.
    6. Sozen, Adnan & Arcaklioglu, Erol, 2007. "Prediction of net energy consumption based on economic indicators (GNP and GDP) in Turkey," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(10), pages 4981-4992, October.
    7. Ali Akkemik, K., 2009. "Cost function estimates, scale economies and technological progress in the Turkish electricity generation sector," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(1), pages 204-213, January.
    8. Khan, Muhammad T. & Thopil, George Alex & Lalk, Jorg, 2016. "Review of proposals for practical power sector restructuring and reforms in a dynamic electricity supply industry," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 62(C), pages 326-335.
    9. Kemal Ozturk, Harun & Yilanci, Ahmet & Atalay, Oner, 2007. "Past, present and future status of electricity in Turkey and the share of energy sources," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 11(2), pages 183-209, February.
    10. Çapik, Mehmet & Yılmaz, Ali Osman & Çavuşoğlu, İbrahim, 2012. "Present situation and potential role of renewable energy in Turkey," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 46(C), pages 1-13.
    11. Toklu, E. & Güney, M.S. & IsIk, M. & ComaklI, O. & Kaygusuz, K., 2010. "Energy production, consumption, policies and recent developments in Turkey," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 14(4), pages 1172-1186, May.
    12. Dursun, Bahtiyar & Alboyaci, Bora, 2010. "The contribution of wind-hydro pumped storage systems in meeting Turkey's electric energy demand," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 14(7), pages 1979-1988, September.
    13. Erdogdu, Erkan, 2007. "Nuclear power in open energy markets: A case study of Turkey," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(5), pages 3061-3073, May.
    14. Camadan, Ercüment & Erten, Ibrahim Etem, 2011. "An evaluation of the transitional Turkish electricity balancing and settlement market: Lessons for the future," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 15(2), pages 1325-1334, February.
    15. Alboyaci, Bora & Dursun, Bahtiyar, 2008. "Electricity restructuring in Turkey and the share of wind energy production," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 33(11), pages 2499-2505.
    16. Erdogdu, Erkan, 2007. "Regulatory reform in Turkish energy industry: An analysis," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(2), pages 984-993, February.
    17. Uzlu, Ergun & Akpınar, Adem & Kömürcü, Murat İhsan, 2011. "Restructuring of Turkey’s electricity market and the share of hydropower energy: The case of the Eastern Black Sea Basin," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 36(2), pages 676-688.
    18. Tasdoven, Hidayet & Fiedler, Beth Ann & Garayev, Vener, 2012. "Improving electricity efficiency in Turkey by addressing illegal electricity consumption: A governance approach," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 43(C), pages 226-234.
    19. Sozen, Adnan & Nalbant, Muammer, 2007. "Situation of Turkey's energy indicators among the EU member states," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(10), pages 4993-5002, October.
    20. Karasu, Servet, 2010. "The effect of daylight saving time options on electricity consumption of Turkey," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 35(9), pages 3773-3782.


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