IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/rensus/v50y2015icp918-924.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Estimating the Environment Kuznets Curve hypothesis: Evidence from Latin America and the Caribbean countries

Author

Listed:
  • Al-mulali, Usama
  • Tang, Chor Foon
  • Ozturk, Ilhan

Abstract

This study explores the effect of economic growth (GDP), renewable energy consumption (RE) and financial development (FD) on CO2 emission (CO2) in Latin America and Caribbean countries. To achieve this goal, a panel CO2 model was built over the period 1980–2010. The Kao cointegration test results revealed that the variables are cointegrated. The Fully Modified OLS (FMOLS) results indicated an inverted U-shape relationship between CO2 and GDP, thus confirming the Environmental Kuznets Curve hypothesis. Furthermore, FMOLS results also revealed that FD can improve environmental quality by its negative long-run effect on CO2. However, RE has no long-run effect on CO2 indicating that the RE does not contribute to CO2 reduction. The VECM Granger causality results revealed feedback causality between GDP, RE, FD and CO2 in both short- and long-run. Additionally, Granger causality results also revealed that RE, GDP, and FD can be a good solution to reduce environmental damage since they have a causal effect on CO2. This study shows the investigated countries should increase their banking loans on green energy, energy efficiency and energy saving projects to reduce environmental damage. In addition, the above recommendation can increase the contribution of renewable energy in reducing environmental damage.

Suggested Citation

  • Al-mulali, Usama & Tang, Chor Foon & Ozturk, Ilhan, 2015. "Estimating the Environment Kuznets Curve hypothesis: Evidence from Latin America and the Caribbean countries," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 50(C), pages 918-924.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:rensus:v:50:y:2015:i:c:p:918-924
    DOI: 10.1016/j.rser.2015.05.017
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S136403211500475X
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Narayan, Paresh Kumar & Narayan, Seema & Popp, Stephan, 2010. "Does electricity consumption panel Granger cause GDP? A new global evidence," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 87(10), pages 3294-3298, October.
    2. Pao, Hsiao-Tien & Tsai, Chung-Ming, 2010. "CO2 emissions, energy consumption and economic growth in BRIC countries," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(12), pages 7850-7860, December.
    3. Jalil, Abdul & Feridun, Mete, 2011. "The impact of growth, energy and financial development on the environment in China: A cointegration analysis," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(2), pages 284-291, March.
    4. Pao, Hsiao-Tien & Yu, Hsiao-Cheng & Yang, Yeou-Herng, 2011. "Modeling the CO2 emissions, energy use, and economic growth in Russia," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 36(8), pages 5094-5100.
    5. Ciarreta, A. & Zarraga, A., 2010. "Economic growth-electricity consumption causality in 12 European countries: A dynamic panel data approach," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(7), pages 3790-3796, July.
    6. Apergis, Nicholas & Payne, James E., 2010. "Renewable energy consumption and growth in Eurasia," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(6), pages 1392-1397, November.
    7. Lean, Hooi Hooi & Smyth, Russell, 2010. "CO2 emissions, electricity consumption and output in ASEAN," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 87(6), pages 1858-1864, June.
    8. Shahbaz, Muhammad & Hye, Qazi Muhammad Adnan & Tiwari, Aviral Kumar & Leitão, Nuno Carlos, 2013. "Economic growth, energy consumption, financial development, international trade and CO2 emissions in Indonesia," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 25(C), pages 109-121.
    9. Choi, In, 2001. "Unit root tests for panel data," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 20(2), pages 249-272, April.
    10. Hatzigeorgiou, Emmanouil & Polatidis, Heracles & Haralambopoulos, Dias, 2011. "CO2 emissions, GDP and energy intensity: A multivariate cointegration and causality analysis for Greece, 1977-2007," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 88(4), pages 1377-1385, April.
    11. Al-mulali, Usama & Binti Che Sab, Che Normee, 2012. "The impact of energy consumption and CO2 emission on the economic and financial development in 19 selected countries," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 16(7), pages 4365-4369.
    12. Kumar Narayan, Paresh & Singh, Baljeet, 2007. "The electricity consumption and GDP nexus for the Fiji Islands," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 29(6), pages 1141-1150, November.
    13. Jahangir Alam, Mohammad & Ara Begum, Ismat & Buysse, Jeroen & Van Huylenbroeck, Guido, 2012. "Energy consumption, carbon emissions and economic growth nexus in Bangladesh: Cointegration and dynamic causality analysis," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 45(C), pages 217-225.
    14. Shahbaz, Muhammad & Tang, Chor Foon & Shahbaz Shabbir, Muhammad, 2011. "Electricity consumption and economic growth nexus in Portugal using cointegration and causality approaches," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(6), pages 3529-3536, June.
    15. Sadorsky, Perry, 2010. "The impact of financial development on energy consumption in emerging economies," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(5), pages 2528-2535, May.
    16. Tamazian, Artur & Bhaskara Rao, B., 2010. "Do economic, financial and institutional developments matter for environmental degradation? Evidence from transitional economies," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(1), pages 137-145, January.
    17. Chen, Sheng-Tung & Kuo, Hsiao-I & Chen, Chi-Chung, 2007. "The relationship between GDP and electricity consumption in 10 Asian countries," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(4), pages 2611-2621, April.
    18. Jamil, Faisal & Ahmad, Eatzaz, 2010. "The relationship between electricity consumption, electricity prices and GDP in Pakistan," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(10), pages 6016-6025, October.
    19. Al-mulali, Usama & Binti Che Sab, Che Normee, 2012. "The impact of energy consumption and CO2 emission on the economic growth and financial development in the Sub Saharan African countries," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 39(1), pages 180-186.
    20. Apergis, Nicholas & Payne, James E., 2011. "A dynamic panel study of economic development and the electricity consumption-growth nexus," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(5), pages 770-781, September.
    21. Marques, António Cardoso & Fuinhas, José Alberto, 2012. "Is renewable energy effective in promoting growth?," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 46(C), pages 434-442.
    22. Ho, Chun-Yu & Siu, Kam Wing, 2007. "A dynamic equilibrium of electricity consumption and GDP in Hong Kong: An empirical investigation," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(4), pages 2507-2513, April.
    23. Golam Ahamad, Mazbahul & Nazrul Islam, A.K.M., 2011. "Electricity consumption and economic growth nexus in Bangladesh: Revisited evidences," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(10), pages 6145-6150, October.
    24. Apergis, Nicholas & Payne, James E., 2010. "The emissions, energy consumption, and growth nexus: Evidence from the commonwealth of independent states," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(1), pages 650-655, January.
    25. Pesaran, M.H., 2004. "‘General Diagnostic Tests for Cross Section Dependence in Panels’," Cambridge Working Papers in Economics 0435, Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge.
    26. Apergis, Nicholas & Payne, James E., 2010. "Renewable energy consumption and economic growth: Evidence from a panel of OECD countries," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(1), pages 656-660, January.
    27. Salim, Ruhul A. & Rafiq, Shuddhasattwa, 2012. "Why do some emerging economies proactively accelerate the adoption of renewable energy?," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(4), pages 1051-1057.
    28. Pao, Hsiao-Tien & Tsai, Chung-Ming, 2011. "Modeling and forecasting the CO2 emissions, energy consumption, and economic growth in Brazil," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 36(5), pages 2450-2458.
    29. Yuan, Jiahai & Zhao, Changhong & Yu, Shunkun & Hu, Zhaoguang, 2007. "Electricity consumption and economic growth in China: Cointegration and co-feature analysis," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 29(6), pages 1179-1191, November.
    30. Zilio, Mariana & Recalde, Marina, 2011. "GDP and environment pressure: The role of energy in Latin America and the Caribbean," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(12), pages 7941-7949.
    31. Fang, Yiping, 2011. "Economic welfare impacts from renewable energy consumption: The China experience," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 15(9), pages 5120-5128.
    32. Al-mulali, Usama, 2011. "Oil consumption, CO2 emission and economic growth in MENA countries," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 36(10), pages 6165-6171.
    33. Sadorsky, Perry, 2009. "Renewable energy consumption, CO2 emissions and oil prices in the G7 countries," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(3), pages 456-462, May.
    34. Chandran, V.G.R. & Sharma, Susan & Madhavan, Karunagaran, 2010. "Electricity consumption-growth nexus: The case of Malaysia," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(1), pages 606-612, January.
    35. Coondoo, Dipankor & Dinda, Soumyananda, 2002. "Causality between income and emission: a country group-specific econometric analysis," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 40(3), pages 351-367, March.
    36. Apergis, Nicholas & Payne, James E., 2012. "Renewable and non-renewable energy consumption-growth nexus: Evidence from a panel error correction model," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(3), pages 733-738.
    37. Jafari, Yaghoob & Othman, Jamal & Nor, Abu Hassan Shaari Mohd, 2012. "Energy consumption, economic growth and environmental pollutants in Indonesia," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 34(6), pages 879-889.
    38. Odhiambo, Nicholas M., 2009. "Electricity consumption and economic growth in South Africa: A trivariate causality test," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(5), pages 635-640, September.
    39. Jalil, Abdul & Mahmud, Syed F., 2009. "Environment Kuznets curve for CO2 emissions: A cointegration analysis for China," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(12), pages 5167-5172, December.
    40. Chandran, V.G.R. & Tang, Chor Foon, 2013. "The impacts of transport energy consumption, foreign direct investment and income on CO2 emissions in ASEAN-5 economies," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 24(C), pages 445-453.
    41. Peter Pedroni, 2000. "Fully Modified OLS for Heterogeneous Cointegrated Panels," Department of Economics Working Papers 2000-03, Department of Economics, Williams College.
    42. Ozturk, Ilhan & Acaravci, Ali, 2011. "Electricity consumption and real GDP causality nexus: Evidence from ARDL bounds testing approach for 11 MENA countries," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 88(8), pages 2885-2892, August.
    43. Ozturk, Ilhan & Acaravci, Ali, 2013. "The long-run and causal analysis of energy, growth, openness and financial development on carbon emissions in Turkey," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 36(C), pages 262-267.
    44. Wang, S.S. & Zhou, D.Q. & Zhou, P. & Wang, Q.W., 2011. "CO2 emissions, energy consumption and economic growth in China: A panel data analysis," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(9), pages 4870-4875, September.
    45. Sadorsky, Perry, 2011. "Financial development and energy consumption in Central and Eastern European frontier economies," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(2), pages 999-1006, February.
    46. Soytas, Ugur & Sari, Ramazan & Ewing, Bradley T., 2007. "Energy consumption, income, and carbon emissions in the United States," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 62(3-4), pages 482-489, May.
    47. Mozumder, Pallab & Marathe, Achla, 2007. "Causality relationship between electricity consumption and GDP in Bangladesh," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(1), pages 395-402, January.
    48. Narayan, Paresh Kumar & Prasad, Arti, 2008. "Electricity consumption-real GDP causality nexus: Evidence from a bootstrapped causality test for 30 OECD countries," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 36(2), pages 910-918, February.
    49. Apergis, Nicholas & Payne, James E., 2011. "The renewable energy consumption-growth nexus in Central America," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 88(1), pages 343-347, January.
    50. Maddala, G S & Wu, Shaowen, 1999. " A Comparative Study of Unit Root Tests with Panel Data and a New Simple Test," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 61(0), pages 631-652, Special I.
    51. Acaravci, Ali & Ozturk, Ilhan, 2010. "On the relationship between energy consumption, CO2 emissions and economic growth in Europe," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 35(12), pages 5412-5420.
    52. Acaravci, Ali & Ozturk, Ilhan, 2010. "Electricity consumption-growth nexus: Evidence from panel data for transition countries," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(3), pages 604-608, May.
    53. Apergis, Nicholas & Payne, James E. & Menyah, Kojo & Wolde-Rufael, Yemane, 2010. "On the causal dynamics between emissions, nuclear energy, renewable energy, and economic growth," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 69(11), pages 2255-2260, September.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. repec:eee:renene:v:139:y:2019:i:c:p:198-213 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. repec:eco:journ2:2017-04-13 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. Ahmed, Khalid & Rehman, Mujeeb Ur & Ozturk, Ilhan, 2017. "What drives carbon dioxide emissions in the long-run? Evidence from selected South Asian Countries," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 70(C), pages 1142-1153.
    4. Ulusoy, Veysel & Demiralay, Sercan, 2017. "Energy demand and stock market development in OECD countries: A panel data analysis," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 71(C), pages 141-149.
    5. repec:eee:energy:v:141:y:2017:i:c:p:170-178 is not listed on IDEAS
    6. Abid Rashid Gill & Kuperan K. Viswanathan & Sallahuddin Hassan, 2017. "Is Environmental Kuznets Curve Still Relevant?," International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, Econjournals, vol. 7(1), pages 156-165.
    7. Pablo-Romero, María del P. & De Jesús, Josué, 2016. "Economic growth and energy consumption: The Energy-Environmental Kuznets Curve for Latin America and the Caribbean," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 60(C), pages 1343-1350.
    8. repec:eee:rensus:v:82:y:2018:i:p3:p:4170-4178 is not listed on IDEAS
    9. repec:ebl:ecbull:eb-17-00684 is not listed on IDEAS
    10. Adewuyi, Adeolu O., 2016. "Effects of public and private expenditures on environmental pollution: A dynamic heterogeneous panel data analysis," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 65(C), pages 489-506.
    11. Al-mulali, Usama, 2016. "Exploring the bi-directional long run relationship between energy consumption and life quality," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 54(C), pages 824-837.
    12. repec:gam:jsusta:v:9:y:2017:i:8:p:1428-:d:108059 is not listed on IDEAS
    13. Shahzad, Syed Jawad Hussain & Kumar, Ronald Ravinesh & Zakaria, Muhammad & Hurr, Maryam, 2017. "Carbon emission, energy consumption, trade openness and financial development in Pakistan: A revisit," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 70(C), pages 185-192.
    14. Manuel A. Zambrano-Monserrate & Freddy F. García-Albán & Kliffer A. Henk-Vera, 2016. "Bounds Testing Approach to Analyze the Existence of an Environmental Kuznets Curve in Ecuador," International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, Econjournals, vol. 6(2), pages 159-166.
    15. Apergis, Nicholas, 2016. "Environmental Kuznets curves: New evidence on both panel and country-level CO2 emissions," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 54(C), pages 263-271.
    16. José Dávalos, 2016. "Sustainable Economic Growth: An Empirical Study for the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Forum," International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, Econjournals, vol. 6(3), pages 594-601.
    17. repec:eco:journ2:2017-03-15 is not listed on IDEAS

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:rensus:v:50:y:2015:i:c:p:918-924. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Dana Niculescu). General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/600126/description#description .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.