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Quantifying the bullwhip effect using two-echelon data: A cross-industry empirical investigation

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  • Isaksson, Olov H.D.
  • Seifert, Ralf W.

Abstract

The bullwhip effect denotes the phenomenon whereby demand variability is amplified from a downstream site (buyer) to an upstream site (supplier) in the supply chain. This paper contributes to the literature that empirically investigates the bullwhip effect by providing new evidence regarding its prevalence and magnitude. In contrast to previous work, we use a two-echelon approach, which allows us to observe variations at both the upstream and the downstream sites. By drawing on a financial accounting standard regarding information disclosure about major customers, we are able to link 5494 buyers and suppliers in the U.S. between 1976 and 2009. We merge this information with quarterly financial accounting data to form a sample of 14,933 buyer–supplier dyad observations. We correct for sample selection bias using propensity score matching and estimate the average bullwhip effect in our sample to be 1.90 (i.e. 90% demand variability amplification between echelons). A significant bullwhip effect is observed across industries (mining, manufacturing, wholesale and retail) and is supported by several robustness checks. We investigate and discuss how these results can be generalized beyond our sample.

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  • Isaksson, Olov H.D. & Seifert, Ralf W., 2016. "Quantifying the bullwhip effect using two-echelon data: A cross-industry empirical investigation," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 171(P3), pages 311-320.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:proeco:v:171:y:2016:i:p3:p:311-320
    DOI: 10.1016/j.ijpe.2015.08.027
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    2. Scarpin, Marcia Regina Santiago & Scarpin, Jorge Eduardo & Krespi Musial, Nayane Thais & Nakamura, Wilson Toshiro, 2022. "The implications of COVID-19: Bullwhip and ripple effects in global supply chains," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 251(C).
    3. de Lima, Daruichi Pereira & Fioriolli, José Carlos & Padula, Antonio Domingos & Pumi, Guilherme, 2018. "The impact of Chinese imports of soybean on port infrastructure in Brazil: A study based on the concept of the “Bullwhip Effect”," Journal of Commodity Markets, Elsevier, vol. 9(C), pages 55-76.
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    7. Jin, Ming & DeHoratius, Nicole & Schmidt, Glen, 2017. "In search of intra-industry bullwhips," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 191(C), pages 51-65.
    8. Zhu, Tianyuan & Balakrishnan, Jaydeep & da Silveira, Giovani J.C., 2020. "Bullwhip effect in the oil and gas supply chain: A multiple-case study," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 224(C).
    9. Ponte, Borja & Cannella, Salvatore & Dominguez, Roberto & Naim, Mohamed M. & Syntetos, Aris A., 2021. "Quality grading of returns and the dynamics of remanufacturing," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 236(C).
    10. Moser, Philipp & Isaksson, Olov H.D. & Seifert, Ralf W., 2017. "Inventory dynamics in process industries: An empirical investigation," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 191(C), pages 253-266.
    11. Ponte, Borja & Framinan, Jose M. & Cannella, Salvatore & Dominguez, Roberto, 2020. "Quantifying the Bullwhip Effect in closed-loop supply chains: The interplay of information transparencies, return rates, and lead times," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 230(C).
    12. Chih-Hung Hsu & Ru-Yue Yu & An-Yuan Chang & Wan-Ling Liu & An-Ching Sun, 2022. "Applying Integrated QFD-MCDM Approach to Strengthen Supply Chain Agility for Mitigating Sustainable Risks," Mathematics, MDPI, vol. 10(4), pages 1-41, February.
    13. Mervegül Kirci & Olov Isaksson & Ralf Seifert, 2022. "Managing Perishability in the Fruit and Vegetable Supply Chains," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 14(9), pages 1-24, April.

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