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The time dimension and lithium resource constraints for electric vehicles

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  • Kushnir, Duncan
  • Sandén, Björn A.

Abstract

The availability of lithium resources for a transition to electric vehicles is a vital topic for transport technology strategy. Recent debate seems to have concluded that there is ‘sufficient’ lithium available, but for the purposes of a technological transition, time matters. It is not simply the quantity of resource that is relevant—the flow rate into society may be a much more difficult constraint and transient events have disrupted heavily concentrated material supply chains in the past. Furthermore, critical assumptions such as the presence of recycling systems may not be justified without policy support. Complacency is therefore not an appropriate stance for a robust evaluation of material risks in the case of lithium.

Suggested Citation

  • Kushnir, Duncan & Sandén, Björn A., 2012. "The time dimension and lithium resource constraints for electric vehicles," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(1), pages 93-103.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:jrpoli:v:37:y:2012:i:1:p:93-103
    DOI: 10.1016/j.resourpol.2011.11.003
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. repec:gam:jsusta:v:10:y:2018:i:4:p:1148-:d:140537 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. Martos, A. & Pacheco-Torres, R. & Ordóñez, J. & Jadraque-Gago, E., 2016. "Towards successful environmental performance of sustainable cities: Intervening sectors. A review," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 57(C), pages 479-495.
    3. Miedema, Jan H. & Moll, Henri C., 2013. "Lithium availability in the EU27 for battery-driven vehicles: The impact of recycling and substitution on the confrontation between supply and demand until2050," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(2), pages 204-211.
    4. Kim, Junbeum & Guillaume, Bertrand & Chung, Jinwook & Hwang, Yongwoo, 2015. "Critical and precious materials consumption and requirement in wind energy system in the EU 27," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 139(C), pages 327-334.
    5. Rosendahl, Knut Einar & Rubiano, Diana Roa, 2018. "How effective is lithium recycling as a remedy for resource scarcity?," Working Paper Series 3-2018, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, School of Economics and Business, revised 16 Apr 2018.
    6. George A. Gonzalez, 2016. "Transforming Energy: Solving Climate Change with Technology Policy . New York : Cambridge University Press . 360 pages. ISBN 9781107614970, $29.99 paperback. Anthony Patt , 2015 ," Review of Policy Research, Policy Studies Organization, vol. 33(1), pages 111-113, January.
    7. Pihl, Erik & Kushnir, Duncan & Sandén, Björn & Johnsson, Filip, 2012. "Material constraints for concentrating solar thermal power," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 44(1), pages 944-954.
    8. repec:eee:appene:v:212:y:2018:i:c:p:663-679 is not listed on IDEAS
    9. Nilsson, Måns & Nykvist, Björn, 2016. "Governing the electric vehicle transition – Near term interventions to support a green energy economy," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 179(C), pages 1360-1371.
    10. repec:gam:jsusta:v:9:y:2017:i:9:p:1508-:d:109670 is not listed on IDEAS
    11. repec:eee:appene:v:207:y:2017:i:c:p:494-509 is not listed on IDEAS
    12. Vikström, Hanna & Davidsson, Simon & Höök, Mikael, 2013. "Lithium availability and future production outlooks," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 110(C), pages 252-266.
    13. Speirs, Jamie & Contestabile, Marcello & Houari, Yassine & Gross, Robert, 2014. "The future of lithium availability for electric vehicle batteries," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 35(C), pages 183-193.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Transport; Battery; Electric; Vehicle; Transition; Lithium;

    JEL classification:

    • Q30 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Nonrenewable Resources and Conservation - - - General

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