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Definition-consistent measurement of exchange market pressure

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  • Klaassen, Franc
  • Jager, Henk

Abstract

Currencies can be under severe pressure, but in a managed exchange rate regime that is not fully visible via the change in the exchange rate. The literature has proposed a way to measure such exchange market pressure (EMP) indirectly, by adding interest rate changes and forex interventions to the exchange rate change. We demonstrate that this measure is not consistent with the definition of EMP and develop a new measure that is consistent. This is first derived within the commonly used monetary exchange rate model. Then we generalize the analysis by avoiding the use of an exchange rate model. We find that the interest rate should not be taken in the first-difference form used so far, but rather in level form and relative to the interest rate chosen if the country had no exchange rate objective. Applications on the European Monetary System and East Asian crises confirm that this improvement is highly relevant in practice.

Suggested Citation

  • Klaassen, Franc & Jager, Henk, 2011. "Definition-consistent measurement of exchange market pressure," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 30(1), pages 74-95, February.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:jimfin:v:30:y:2011:i:1:p:74-95
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    Cited by:

    1. Tjeerd M. Boonman & Jan P. A. M. Jacobs & Gerard H. Kuper & Alberto Romero, 2017. "Early Warning Systems for Currency Crises with Real-Time Data," CIRANO Working Papers 2017s-18, CIRANO.
    2. Patnaik, Ila & Felman, Joshua & Shah, Ajay, 2017. "An exchange market pressure measure for cross country analysis," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 73(PA), pages 62-77.
    3. Aizenman, Joshua & Binici, Mahir, 2016. "Exchange market pressure in OECD and emerging economies: Domestic vs. external factors and capital flows in the old and new normal," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 66(C), pages 65-87.
    4. Feldkircher, Martin & Horvath, Roman & Rusnak, Marek, 2014. "Exchange market pressures during the financial crisis: A Bayesian model averaging evidence," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 21-41.
    5. Robert Dixon & Zhichao Zhang & Yang Dai, 2016. "Exchange Rate Flexibility in China: Measurement, Regime Shifts and Driving Forces of Change," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 24(5), pages 875-892, November.
    6. Scott W. Hegerty, 2015. "Time-Varying Versus Fixed Weights in Exchange-Market Pressure Indices: Evidence From Tests Using Latin American Data," Bulletin of Applied Economics, Risk Market Journals, vol. 2(1), pages 21-36.
    7. Dąbrowski, Marek A. & Śmiech, Sławomir & Papież, Monika, 2015. "Monetary policy options for mitigating the impact of the global financial crisis on emerging market economies," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 51(C), pages 409-431.
    8. Alexander Erler & Steffen Sirries & Christian Bauer & Bernhard Herz, 2015. "Exchange Market Pressure and Monetary Policy in Emerging Market Economies: New Evidence from Treatment-effect Estimations," Review of Development Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 19(3), pages 470-485, August.
    9. Boonman Tjeerd & Jan P.A.M. Jacobs & Kuper Gerard H. & Romero Alberto, 2017. "Early Warning Systems with Real-Time Data," Working Papers 2017-16, Banco de México.
    10. Erler, Alexander & Bauer, Christian & Herz, Bernhard, 2015. "To intervene, or not to intervene: Monetary policy and the costs of currency crises," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 51(C), pages 432-456.
    11. Martin Feldkircher & Thomas Gruber & Isabella Moder, 2014. "Using a Threshold Approach to Flag Vulnerabilities in CESEE Economies," Focus on European Economic Integration, Oesterreichische Nationalbank (Austrian Central Bank), issue 3, pages 8-30.
    12. Erler, Alexander & Bauer, Christian & Herz, Bernhard, 2014. "Defending against speculative attacks – It is risky, but it can pay off," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 47(C), pages 309-330.

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