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An evaluation of the age-profile in the relationship between household income and the health of children in the United States

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  • Murasko, Jason E.

Abstract

Previous work has shown that the income gradient in child health for the United States becomes steeper with age. This paper shows a similar pattern using the 1996-2005 Medical Expenditure Panel Surveys (MEPS). A framework is also presented to evaluate cumulative and contemporaneous income effects through the use of baseline health controls. The analysis shows that poor health is more persistent in older children, and that the income gradient is substantially flattened over age groups when controlling for baseline health. However, even when controlling for baseline health, there remains a stronger effect from income on the health of adolescents. These results may reflect a cumulative effect from income that explains much of the strengthening association between income and health before adolescence, with a remaining stronger contemporaneous association in that age group. The analysis is unable to identify a major role of chronic conditions or injuries in these relationships.

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  • Murasko, Jason E., 2008. "An evaluation of the age-profile in the relationship between household income and the health of children in the United States," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 27(6), pages 1489-1502, December.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:jhecon:v:27:y:2008:i:6:p:1489-1502
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    5. Jason Fletcher & Barbara Wolfe, 2014. "Increasing Our Understanding Of The Health‐Income Gradient In Children," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 23(4), pages 473-486, April.
    6. van Kippersluis, Hans & O'Donnell, Owen & van Doorslaer, Eddy & Van Ourti, Tom, 2010. "Socioeconomic differences in health over the life cycle in an Egalitarian country," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 70(3), pages 428-438, February.
    7. Titus J Galama & Hans van Kippersluis, 2019. "A Theory of Socio-economic Disparities in Health over the Life Cycle," The Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 129(617), pages 338-374.
    8. Anne Nolan & Richard Layte, 2014. "Socio-economic Inequalities in Child Health in Ireland," The Economic and Social Review, Economic and Social Studies, vol. 45(1), pages 25-64.
    9. Borga, Liyousew G. & Münich, Daniel & Kukla, Lubomir, 2021. "The socioeconomic gradient in child health and noncognitive skills: Evidence from the Czech Republic," Economics & Human Biology, Elsevier, vol. 43(C).
    10. Edoka, I.P., 2012. "Decomposing Differences in Cotinine Distribution between Children and Adolescents from Different Socioeconomic Backgrounds," Health, Econometrics and Data Group (HEDG) Working Papers 12/29, HEDG, c/o Department of Economics, University of York.
    11. Paul Frijters & Michael A. Shields & Stephen Wheatley Price & Jenny Williams, 2011. "Quantifying the cost of passive smoking on child health: evidence from children's cotinine samples," Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series A, Royal Statistical Society, vol. 174(1), pages 195-212, January.
    12. Steffen Reinhold & Hendrik Jürges, 2012. "Parental income and child health in Germany," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 21(5), pages 562-579, May.
    13. Fletcher, Jason M. & Wolfe, Barbara, 2016. "The importance of family income in the formation and evolution of non-cognitive skills in childhood," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 54(C), pages 143-154.
    14. Barbara Wolfe & Jessica Jakubowski & Robert Haveman & Marissa Courey, 2012. "The Income and Health Effects of Tribal Casino Gaming on American Indians," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 49(2), pages 499-524, May.
    15. Johnston, David W. & Propper, Carol & Pudney, Stephen & Shields, Michael A., 2010. "Is There an Income Gradient in Child Health? It Depends Whom You Ask," IZA Discussion Papers 4830, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    16. Joseph Wolfe, 2015. "The Effects of Socioeconomic Status on Child and Adolescent Physical Health: An Organization and Systematic Comparison of Measures," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 123(1), pages 39-58, August.
    17. Gundersen, Craig & Kreider, Brent, 2009. "Bounding the effects of food insecurity on children's health outcomes," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 28(5), pages 971-983, September.
    18. Rasheda Khanam & Son Nghiem, 2016. "Family Income and Child Cognitive and Noncognitive Development in Australia: Does Money Matter?," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 53(3), pages 597-621, June.
    19. Juergen Jung & Chung Tran, 2010. "Medical Consumption over the Life Cycle: Facts from a U.S. Medical Expenditure Panel Survey," Working Papers 2010-09, Towson University, Department of Economics, revised Mar 2013.
    20. Yunwei Chen & Sean Sylvia & Sarah-Eve Dill & Scott Rozelle, 2022. "Structural Determinants of Child Health in Rural China: The Challenge of Creating Health Equity," IJERPH, MDPI, vol. 19(21), pages 1-12, October.
    21. Pinka Chatterji & Kajal Lahiri & Jingya Song, 2011. "The Dynamics of Income-related Health Inequality among US Children," CESifo Working Paper Series 3572, CESifo.
    22. Pinka Chatterji & Kajal Lahiri & Jingya Song, 2013. "The Dynamics Of Income‐Related Health Inequality Among American Children," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 22(5), pages 623-629, May.
    23. Kuehnle, Daniel, 2014. "The causal effect of family income on child health in the UK," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 36(C), pages 137-150.
    24. Jason Murasko, 2015. "The Age Profile of the Income–Health Gradient: An Evaluation of Two Large Cohorts of Contemporary US Children," Journal of Family and Economic Issues, Springer, vol. 36(2), pages 289-298, June.
    25. Mara Violato & Stavros Petrou & Ron Gray & Maggie Redshaw, 2011. "Family income and child cognitive and behavioural development in the United Kingdom: does money matter?," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 20(10), pages 1201-1225, October.

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