IDEAS home Printed from
MyIDEAS: Login to save this article or follow this journal

Beyond environmental scarcity: Human and social capital as driving forces of bootstrapping activities

  • Grichnik, Dietmar
  • Brinckmann, Jan
  • Singh, Luv
  • Manigart, Sophie
Registered author(s):

    Although entrepreneurship scholars highlight bootstrapping as a key resource acquisition approach to respond to the inherent resource constraints that nascent ventures face, little is known about what causes nascent ventures to engage in bootstrapping. Theory highlights the environment as an important determinant of bootstrapping activity. Analyzing bootstrapping behavior of 298 nascent ventures, we find that beyond perceived environmental factors, individual characteristics of the nascent entrepreneurs and factors relating to the embeddedness of the entrepreneurs in the environment determine their venture's bootstrapping behavior. In a more fine-grained analysis we gain insights into how these antecedents shape the use of particular bootstrapping strategies. Findings contribute to our understanding of factors driving resource management approaches in nascent ventures.

    If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.

    Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Journal of Business Venturing.

    Volume (Year): 29 (2014)
    Issue (Month): 2 ()
    Pages: 310-326

    in new window

    Handle: RePEc:eee:jbvent:v:29:y:2014:i:2:p:310-326
    Contact details of provider: Web page:

    References listed on IDEAS
    Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

    as in new window
    1. Oswald Jones & Dilani Jayawarna, 2010. "Resourcing new businesses: social networks, bootstrapping and firm performance," Venture Capital, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 12(2), pages 127-152, January.
    2. Winborg, Joakim & Landstrom, Hans, 2001. "Financial bootstrapping in small businesses: Examining small business managers' resource acquisition behaviors," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 16(3), pages 235-254, May.
    3. Dimo Dimov, 2010. "Nascent Entrepreneurs and Venture Emergence: Opportunity Confidence, Human Capital, and Early Planning," Journal of Management Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 47(6), pages 1123-1153, 09.
    4. Haynie, J. Michael & Shepherd, Dean & Mosakowski, Elaine & Earley, P. Christopher, 2010. "A situated metacognitive model of the entrepreneurial mindset," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 25(2), pages 217-229, March.
    5. Ebben, Jay & Johnson, Alec, 2006. "Bootstrapping in small firms: An empirical analysis of change over time," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 21(6), pages 851-865, November.
    6. Audretsch, David B & Dohse, Dirk & Niebuhr, Annekatrin, 2008. "Cultural Diversity and Entrepreneurship: A Regional Analysis for Germany," CEPR Discussion Papers 6945, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    7. Ozgen, Eren & Baron, Robert A., 2007. "Social sources of information in opportunity recognition: Effects of mentors, industry networks, and professional forums," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 22(2), pages 174-192, March.
    8. Tom Vanacker & Sophie Manigart & Miguel Meuleman & Luc Sels, 2011. "A longitudinal study on the relationship between financial bootstrapping and new venture growth," Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 23(9-10), pages 681-705, December.
    9. Hoegl, Martin & Gibbert, Michael & Mazursky, David, 2008. "Financial constraints in innovation projects: When is less more?," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(8), pages 1382-1391, September.
    10. Paul D. Reynolds & Nancy M. Carter & William B. Gartner & Patricia G. Greene, 2004. "The Prevalence of Nascent Entrepreneurs in the United States: Evidence from the Panel Study of Entrepreneurial Dynamics," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 23(4), pages 263-284, November.
    11. Wiklund, Johan & Baker, Ted & Shepherd, Dean, 2010. "The age-effect of financial indicators as buffers against the liability of newness," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 25(4), pages 423-437, July.
    12. Hoang, Ha & Antoncic, Bostjan, 2003. "Network-based research in entrepreneurship: A critical review," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 18(2), pages 165-187, March.
    13. Lee, Lena & Wong, Poh Kam & Foo, Maw Der & Leung, Aegean, 2009. "Entrepreneurial intentions: The influence of organizational and individual factors," MPRA Paper 16195, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    14. Deniz Ucbasaran & Mike Wright & Paul Westhead, 2003. "A longitudinal study of habitual entrepreneurs: starters and acquirers," Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 15(3), pages 207-228, July.
    15. Carter, Nancy M. & Gartner, William B. & Shaver, Kelly G. & Gatewood, Elizabeth J., 2003. "The career reasons of nascent entrepreneurs," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 18(1), pages 13-39, January.
    16. Phillip Kim & Howard Aldrich & Lisa Keister, 2006. "Access (Not) Denied: The Impact of Financial, Human, and Cultural Capital on Entrepreneurial Entryin the United States," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 27(1), pages 5-22, August.
    17. Shepherd, Dean A. & Douglas, Evan J. & Shanley, Mark, 2000. "New venture survival: Ignorance, external shocks, and risk reduction strategies," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 15(5-6), pages 393-410.
    18. Westhead, Paul & Wright, Mike, 1998. "Novice, portfolio, and serial founders: are they different?," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 13(3), pages 173-204, May.
    19. Cooper, Arnold C. & Gimeno-Gascon, F. Javier & Woo, Carolyn Y., 1994. "Initial human and financial capital as predictors of new venture performance," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 9(5), pages 371-395, September.
    20. Nicholls-Nixon, Charlene L. & Cooper, Arnold C. & Woo, Carolyn Y., 2000. "Strategic experimentation: Understanding change and performance in new ventures," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 15(5-6), pages 493-521.
    21. Wiklund, Johan & Shepherd, Dean, 2005. "Entrepreneurial orientation and small business performance: a configurational approach," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 20(1), pages 71-91, January.
    22. Davidsson, Per & Honig, Benson, 2003. "The role of social and human capital among nascent entrepreneurs," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 18(3), pages 301-331, May.
    23. Reynolds, Paul D. & Curtin, Richard T., 2008. "Business Creation in the United States: Panel Study of Entrepreneurial Dynamics II Initial Assessment," Foundations and Trends(R) in Entrepreneurship, now publishers, vol. 4(3), pages 155-307, January.
    24. Ebbers, Joris J. & Wijnberg, Nachoem M., 2012. "Nascent ventures competing for start-up capital: Matching reputations and investors," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 27(3), pages 372-384.
    25. Richard T. Harrison & Colin M. Mason & Paul Girling, 2004. "Financial bootstrapping and venture development in the software industry," Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 16(4), pages 307-333, July.
    26. Covin, Jeffrey G. & Slevin, Dennis P. & Heeley, Michael B., 2000. "Pioneers and followers: Competitive tactics, environment, and firm growth," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 15(2), pages 175-210, March.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

    When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:jbvent:v:29:y:2014:i:2:p:310-326. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Zhang, Lei)

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

    If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.