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CEO compensation, family control, and institutional investors in Continental Europe

Author

Listed:
  • Croci, Ettore
  • Gonenc, Halit
  • Ozkan, Neslihan

Abstract

This paper investigates the impact of family control and institutional investors on CEO pay packages in Continental Europe, using a dataset of 754 listed firms with 3731 firm-year observations from 14 countries during 2001–2008. We find that family control curbs the level of CEO total and cash compensation, and the fraction of equity-based compensation. Moreover, we do not observe a significant effect of family control on the excess level of total and cash compensation. This evidence indicates that controlling families do not use CEO compensation to expropriate wealth from minority shareholders. We show that institutional ownership is associated with higher levels of CEO cash and total compensation in Continental Europe, especially in family firms. Also, foreign institutional investors have a positive and significant impact on CEO compensation level. Finally, results indicate that institutional investors affect CEO pay structure: they increase the use of equity-based compensation in both family and non-family firms.

Suggested Citation

  • Croci, Ettore & Gonenc, Halit & Ozkan, Neslihan, 2012. "CEO compensation, family control, and institutional investors in Continental Europe," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 36(12), pages 3318-3335.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:jbfina:v:36:y:2012:i:12:p:3318-3335
    DOI: 10.1016/j.jbankfin.2012.07.017
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. De Cesari, Amedeo & Gonenc, Halit & Ozkan, Neslihan, 2016. "The effects of corporate acquisitions on CEO compensation and CEO turnover of family firms," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 38(C), pages 294-317.
    2. Firth, Michael & Gao, Jin & Shen, Jianghua & Zhang, Yuanyuan, 2016. "Institutional stock ownership and firms’ cash dividend policies: Evidence from China," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 65(C), pages 91-107.
    3. repec:eee:fambus:v:9:y:2018:i:1:p:44-58 is not listed on IDEAS
    4. Słomka-Gołębiowska, Agnieszka & Urbanek, Piotr, 2016. "Corporate boards, large blockholders and executive compensation in banks: Evidence from Poland," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 28(C), pages 203-220.
    5. repec:kap:jmgtgv:v:21:y:2017:i:3:d:10.1007_s10997-016-9366-0 is not listed on IDEAS
    6. Lionel Almeida, 2015. "Who are the controlling shareholders? Degree and seniority of control, and CEO pay monitoring," EconomiX Working Papers 2015-27, University of Paris Nanterre, EconomiX.
    7. repec:kap:jmgtgv:v:21:y:2017:i:3:d:10.1007_s10997-016-9359-z is not listed on IDEAS
    8. Andriosopoulos, Dimitris & Yang, Shuai, 2015. "The impact of institutional investors on mergers and acquisitions in the United Kingdom," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 50(C), pages 547-561.
    9. repec:eee:worbus:v:53:y:2018:i:4:p:433-451 is not listed on IDEAS
    10. Felix K. Thiele, 2017. "Family businesses and non-family equity: literature review and avenues for future research," Management Review Quarterly, Springer;Vienna University of Economics and Business, vol. 67(1), pages 31-63, February.
    11. Simona Catuogno & Sara Saggese & Fabrizia Sarto & Riccardo Viganò, 2016. "Shedding light on the aim of stock options: a literature review," Journal of Management & Governance, Springer;Accademia Italiana di Economia Aziendale (AIDEA), vol. 20(2), pages 387-411, June.
    12. Carlo Cambini & Sara De Masi & Laura Rondi, 2013. "Incentive Compensation and Incentive Regulation: Empirical Evidence," IEFE Working Papers 58, IEFE, Center for Research on Energy and Environmental Economics and Policy, Universita' Bocconi, Milano, Italy.
    13. repec:eee:corfin:v:48:y:2018:i:c:p:314-330 is not listed on IDEAS
    14. Christian Engelen, 2015. "The effects of managerial discretion on moral hazard related behaviour: German evidence on agency costs," Journal of Management & Governance, Springer;Accademia Italiana di Economia Aziendale (AIDEA), vol. 19(4), pages 927-960, November.
    15. De Cesari, Amedeo & Ozkan, Neslihan, 2015. "Executive incentives and payout policy: Empirical evidence from Europe," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 55(C), pages 70-91.
    16. Cheng, Minying & Lin, Bingxuan & Wei, Minghai, 2015. "Executive compensation in family firms: The effect of multiple family members," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 32(C), pages 238-257.
    17. Burns, Natasha & McTier, Brian C. & Minnick, Kristina, 2015. "Equity-incentive compensation and payout policy in Europe," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 30(C), pages 85-97.
    18. repec:ibn:ibrjnl:v:11:y:2018:i:5:p:102-109 is not listed on IDEAS
    19. Carlo Cambini & Sara De Masi & Laura Rondi, 2016. "CEO incentives in European energy utilities: evidence from regulated versus unregulated firms," Economia e Politica Industriale: Journal of Industrial and Business Economics, Springer;Associazione Amici di Economia e Politica Industriale, vol. 43(2), pages 127-155, June.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    CEO compensation; Family firms; Institutional investors; Europe;

    JEL classification:

    • G34 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Mergers; Acquisitions; Restructuring; Corporate Governance

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