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Socioeconomic inequalities in health among Indigenous peoples living off-reserve in Canada: Trends and determinants

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  • Hajizadeh, Mohammad
  • Hu, Min
  • Bombay, Amy
  • Asada, Yukiko

Abstract

Using three nationally representative Aboriginal Peoples Surveys (2001, 2006 and 2012, n = 68,040), we examined income-related inequalities in self-perceived poor/fair general health status among Indigenous adults (18+) living off-reserve in Canada. We used the relative and absolute concentration indices (RC and AC, respectively) to quantify income-related inequalities in health for men and women, within the three Indigenous populations (First Nations, Métis, and Inuit), and in different geographic regions. Moreover, we performed decomposition analysis to determine factors that explain income-related inequality in health within the Indigenous peoples living off-reserve in Canada. The prevalence of poor/fair health status among the Indigenous population living off-reserve increased from 18% in 2001 to 22% in 2012. The extent of pro-rich relative (absolute) income-related inequalities in health increased by 23% (42%) from 2001 to 2012. Income-related inequalities in health increased statistically significantly within First Nations and Métis populations as well as in Atlantic provinces, Ontario, Alberta, British Columbia and Territories. Decomposition analyses indicated that, besides income itself, occupational status and educational attainment were the most important factors contributing to the pro-rich distribution of health among Indigenous peoples living off-reserve. Growing socioeconomic inequalities in health among Indigenous peoples should warrant more attention. Policies designed to address the broader array of social determinants of health may mitigate the continuing inequalities in health among Indigenous peoples living off-reserve in Canada.

Suggested Citation

  • Hajizadeh, Mohammad & Hu, Min & Bombay, Amy & Asada, Yukiko, 2018. "Socioeconomic inequalities in health among Indigenous peoples living off-reserve in Canada: Trends and determinants," Health Policy, Elsevier, vol. 122(8), pages 854-865.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:hepoli:v:122:y:2018:i:8:p:854-865
    DOI: 10.1016/j.healthpol.2018.06.011
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