IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/
MyIDEAS: Login to save this article or follow this journal

Do subordinated debt holders discipline bank risk-taking? Evidence from risk management decisions

  • Belkhir, Mohamed
Registered author(s):

    I test the market discipline of bank risk hypothesis by examining whether banks choose risk management policies that account for the risk preferences of subordinated debt holders. Using around 500,000 quarterly observations on the population of U.S. insured commercial banks over the 1995–2009 period, I document that the ratio of subordinated debt affects bank risk management decisions consistent with the market discipline hypothesis only when subordinated debt is held by the parent holding company. In particular, the subordinated debt ratio increases the likelihood and the extent of interest rate derivatives use for risk management purposes at bank holding company (BHC)-affiliated banks, where subordinated debt holders have a better access to information needed for monitoring and control rights provided by equity ownership. At non-affiliated banks, a higher subordinated debt ratio leads to risk management decisions consistent with moral hazard behavior. The analysis also shows that the too-big-to-fail protection prevents market discipline even at BHC-affiliated banks.

    If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1572308912000022
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.

    Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Journal of Financial Stability.

    Volume (Year): 9 (2013)
    Issue (Month): 4 ()
    Pages: 705-719

    as
    in new window

    Handle: RePEc:eee:finsta:v:9:y:2013:i:4:p:705-719
    Contact details of provider: Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/jfstabil

    References listed on IDEAS
    Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

    as in new window
    1. Goyal, Vidhan K., 2005. "Market discipline of bank risk: Evidence from subordinated debt contracts," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 14(3), pages 318-350, July.
    2. SinkeyJr., Joseph F. & Carter, David A., 2000. "Evidence on the financial characteristics of banks that do and do not use derivatives," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 40(4), pages 431-449.
    3. Douglas W. Diamond & Raghuram G. Rajan, 2000. "A Theory of Bank Capital," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 55(6), pages 2431-2465, December.
    4. Heckman, James J, 1979. "Sample Selection Bias as a Specification Error," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 47(1), pages 153-61, January.
    5. Urs W. Birchler & Diana Hancock, 2003. "What does the yield on subordinated bank debt measure?," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2004-19, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    6. Flannery, Mark J & James, Christopher M, 1984. " The Effect of Interest Rate Changes on the Common Stock Returns of Financial Institutions," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 39(4), pages 1141-53, September.
    7. Whidbee, David A. & Wohar, Mark, 1999. "Derivative activities and managerial incentives in the banking industry," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 5(3), pages 251-276, September.
    8. Niu, Jijun, 2008. "Can subordinated debt constrain banks' risk taking?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 32(6), pages 1110-1119, June.
    9. Kashyap, Anil K. & Stein, Jeremy C., 1995. "The impact of monetary policy on bank balance sheets," Carnegie-Rochester Conference Series on Public Policy, Elsevier, vol. 42(1), pages 151-195, June.
    10. Adam B. Ashcraft, 2001. "New evidence on the lending channel," Staff Reports 136, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
    11. Mayers, David & Smith, Clifford W, Jr, 1982. "On the Corporate Demand for Insurance," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 55(2), pages 281-96, April.
    12. Christina D. Romer & David H. Romer, 1990. "New Evidence on the Monetary Transmission Mechanism," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 21(1), pages 149-214.
    13. Kose John & Anthony Saunders & Lemma W. Senbet, 1996. "A Theory of Bank Regulation and Management Compensation," New York University, Leonard N. Stern School Finance Department Working Paper Seires 96-30, New York University, Leonard N. Stern School of Business-.
    14. Julapa Jagtiani & George Kaufman & Catharine Lemieux, 2002. "The Effect of Credit Risk on Bank and Bank Holding Company Bond Yields: Evidence from the Post-FDICIA Period," Journal of Financial Research, Southern Finance Association;Southwestern Finance Association, vol. 25(4), pages 559-575.
    15. Sironi, Andrea, 2003. " Testing for Market Discipline in the European Banking Industry: Evidence from Subordinated Debt Issues," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 35(3), pages 443-72, June.
    16. René M. Stulz, 1996. "Rethinking Risk Management," Journal of Applied Corporate Finance, Morgan Stanley, vol. 9(3), pages 8-25.
    17. Elijah Brewer, III & Bernadette A. Minton & James T. Moser, 1996. "Interest-rate derivatives and bank lending," Working Paper Series, Macroeconomic Issues WP-96-13, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
    18. Avery, Robert B & Belton, Terrence M & Goldberg, Michael A, 1988. "Market Discipline in Regulating Bank Risk: New Evidence from the Capital Markets," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 20(4), pages 597-610, November.
    19. Tufano, Peter, 1996. " Who Manages Risk? An Empirical Examination of Risk Management Practices in the Gold Mining Industry," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 51(4), pages 1097-1137, September.
    20. Lee C. Adkins & David A. Carter & W. Gary Simpson, 2007. "Managerial Incentives And The Use Of Foreign-Exchange Derivatives By Banks," Journal of Financial Research, Southern Finance Association;Southwestern Finance Association, vol. 30(3), pages 399-413.
    21. Minton, Bernadette & Stulz, Rene & Williamson, Rohan, 2008. "How Much Do Banks Use Credit Derivatives to Hedge Loans?," Working Paper Series 2008-1, Ohio State University, Charles A. Dice Center for Research in Financial Economics.
    22. Inderst, Roman & Mueller, Holger M., 2008. "Bank capital structure and credit decisions," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 17(3), pages 295-314, July.
    23. Smith, Clifford W. & Stulz, René M., 1985. "The Determinants of Firms' Hedging Policies," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 20(04), pages 391-405, December.
    24. Walter Dolde, 1993. "The Trajectory Of Corporate Financial Risk Management," Journal of Applied Corporate Finance, Morgan Stanley, vol. 6(3), pages 33-41.
    25. Diamond, Douglas W, 1984. "Financial Intermediation and Delegated Monitoring," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 51(3), pages 393-414, July.
    26. Hayne E. Leland., 1998. "Agency Costs, Risk Management, and Capital Structure," Research Program in Finance Working Papers RPF-278, University of California at Berkeley.
    27. Murillo Campello, 2002. "Internal Capital Markets in Financial Conglomerates: Evidence from Small Bank Responses to Monetary Policy," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 57(6), pages 2773-2805, December.
    28. Galai, Dan & Masulis, Ronald W., 1976. "The option pricing model and the risk factor of stock," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 3(1-2), pages 53-81.
    29. Purnanandam, Amiyatosh, 2007. "Interest rate derivatives at commercial banks: An empirical investigation," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 54(6), pages 1769-1808, September.
    30. Ashcraft, Adam B., 2008. "Does the market discipline banks? New evidence from regulatory capital mix," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 17(4), pages 543-561, October.
    31. Donald Morgan & Kevin Stiroh, 2001. "Market Discipline of Banks: The Asset Test," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer, vol. 20(2), pages 195-208, October.
    32. Gorton, Gary & Santomero, Anthony M, 1990. "Market Discipline and Bank Subordinated Debt," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 22(1), pages 119-28, February.
    33. Flannery, Mark J & Sorescu, Sorin M, 1996. " Evidence of Bank Market Discipline in Subordinated Debenture Yields: 1983-1991," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 51(4), pages 1347-77, September.
    34. C. N. V. Krishnan & P. H. Ritchken & J. B. Thomson, 2005. "Monitoring and Controlling Bank Risk: Does Risky Debt Help?," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 60(1), pages 343-378, 02.
    35. Douglas Evanoff & Julapa Jagtiani & Taisuke Nakata, 2007. "The potential role of subordinated debt programs in enhancing market discipline in banking," Research Working Paper RWP 07-07, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City.
    36. John R. Graham & Daniel A. Rogers, 2002. "Do Firms Hedge in Response to Tax Incentives?," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 57(2), pages 815-839, 04.
    37. Blasko, Matej & Sinkey, Joseph Jr., 2006. "Bank asset structure, real-estate lending, and risk-taking," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 46(1), pages 53-81, February.
    38. Jeremy C. Stein & Anil K. Kashyap, 2000. "What Do a Million Observations on Banks Say about the Transmission of Monetary Policy?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 90(3), pages 407-428, June.
    39. Jensen, Michael C. & Meckling, William H., 1976. "Theory of the firm: Managerial behavior, agency costs and ownership structure," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 3(4), pages 305-360, October.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

    When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:finsta:v:9:y:2013:i:4:p:705-719. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Zhang, Lei)

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

    If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.