IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

An empirical investigation of the informational efficiency of the GCC equity markets: Evidence from bootstrap simulation


  • Al Janabi, Mazin A.M.
  • Hatemi-J, Abdulnasser
  • Irandoust, Manuchehr


The aim of this study is to explore whether the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) equity markets are informationally efficient with regard to oil and gold price shocks during the period 2006-2008 using daily dollar-based stock market indexes dataset. This paper extends research literature related to the assessment of market efficiency in emerging markets by providing a robust bootstrap simulation technique for the entire GCC financial markets. Unlike most empirical studies in this field, this study represents the first known attempt in empirically examining the impact of oil and gold prices on the financial performance of the six distinctive GCC stock markets. Tests for non-normality and ARCH effects show that the selected variables are not normally distributed and the volatility is time varying. This implies that the standard econometric methods are not reliable to carry out a trustworthy testing of market efficiency. To this end, we use a new method and testing technique which is robust to both non-normality and ARCH effects. The empirical findings reveal that the GCC equity markets are informationally efficient with regard to gold and oil price indexes. Our results entail that short-term arbitrage profit opportunities in the equity markets of these countries might not prevail. Moreover, our findings can reconcile previously contradictory results regarding the weak and semi-strong forms of efficiency of the GCC stock markets and its relation vis-à-vis petrol and gold prices. These findings have important policy implications and should be of interest to market participants, researchers, regulators and policymakers. The results of this paper also provide an incentive for further research in the areas of emerging market efficiency, strategic asset allocation, and portfolio risk management.

Suggested Citation

  • Al Janabi, Mazin A.M. & Hatemi-J, Abdulnasser & Irandoust, Manuchehr, 2010. "An empirical investigation of the informational efficiency of the GCC equity markets: Evidence from bootstrap simulation," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 19(1), pages 47-54, January.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:finana:v:19:y:2010:i:1:p:47-54

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Hacker, Scott & Hatemi-J, Abdulnasser, 2010. "The Properties of Procedures Dealing with Uncertainty about Intercept and Deterministic Trend in Unit Root Testing," Working Paper Series in Economics and Institutions of Innovation 214, Royal Institute of Technology, CESIS - Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies.
    2. Beveridge, Stephen & Nelson, Charles R., 1981. "A new approach to decomposition of economic time series into permanent and transitory components with particular attention to measurement of the `business cycle'," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 7(2), pages 151-174.
    3. Fama, Eugene F., 1998. "Market efficiency, long-term returns, and behavioral finance," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 49(3), pages 283-306, September.
    4. Andrew W. Lo, A. Craig MacKinlay, 1988. "Stock Market Prices do not Follow Random Walks: Evidence from a Simple Specification Test," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 1(1), pages 41-66.
    5. Serena Ng & Pierre Perron, 2001. "LAG Length Selection and the Construction of Unit Root Tests with Good Size and Power," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 69(6), pages 1519-1554, November.
    6. Mohamed A. El-Erian & Manmohan S. Kumar, 1995. "Emerging Equity Markets in Middle Eastern Countries," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 42(2), pages 313-343, June.
    7. Abraham Abraham, 2002. "Testing the Random Walk Behavior and Efficiency of the Gulf Stock Markets," The Financial Review, Eastern Finance Association, vol. 37(3), pages 469-480, August.
    8. R. Scott Hacker & Abdulnasser Hatemi-J, 2006. "Tests for causality between integrated variables using asymptotic and bootstrap distributions: theory and application," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 38(13), pages 1489-1500.
    9. Cajueiro, Daniel O. & Gogas, Periklis & Tabak, Benjamin M., 2009. "Does financial market liberalization increase the degree of market efficiency? The case of the Athens stock exchange," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 18(1-2), pages 50-57, March.
    10. Hatemi-J, Abdulnasser, 2004. "Multivariate tests for autocorrelation in the stable and unstable VAR models," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 21(4), pages 661-683, July.
    11. Wright, Jonathan H, 2000. "Alternative Variance-Ratio Tests Using Ranks and Signs," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 18(1), pages 1-9, January.
    12. Fama, Eugene F & French, Kenneth R, 1988. "Permanent and Temporary Components of Stock Prices," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 96(2), pages 246-273, April.
    13. Fama, Eugene F, 1970. "Efficient Capital Markets: A Review of Theory and Empirical Work," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 25(2), pages 383-417, May.
    14. Granger, C W J, 1969. "Investigating Causal Relations by Econometric Models and Cross-Spectral Methods," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 37(3), pages 424-438, July.
    15. Urrutia, Jorge L, 1995. "Tests of Random Walk and Market Efficiency for Latin American Emerging Equity Markets," Journal of Financial Research, Southern Finance Association;Southwestern Finance Association, vol. 18(3), pages 299-309, Fall.
    16. Butler, Kirt C. & Malaikah, S. J., 1992. "Efficiency and inefficiency in thinly traded stock markets: Kuwait and Saudi Arabia," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 16(1), pages 197-210, February.
    17. Buguk, Cumhur & Wade Brorsen, B., 2003. "Testing weak-form market efficiency: Evidence from the Istanbul Stock Exchange," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 12(5), pages 579-590.
    18. Abdulnasser Hatemi-J & Manuchehr Irandoust, 2006. "A bootstrap-corrected causality test: another look at the money–income relationship," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 31(1), pages 207-216, March.
    19. Lim, Kian-Ping & Brooks, Robert D. & Kim, Jae H., 2008. "Financial crisis and stock market efficiency: Empirical evidence from Asian countries," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 17(3), pages 571-591, June.
    20. Toda, Hiro Y. & Yamamoto, Taku, 1995. "Statistical inference in vector autoregressions with possibly integrated processes," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 66(1-2), pages 225-250.
    21. Burton G. Malkiel, 2003. "The Efficient Market Hypothesis and Its Critics," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 17(1), pages 59-82, Winter.
    22. Ojah, Kalu & Karemera, David, 1999. "Random Walks and Market Efficiency Tests of Latin American Emerging Equity Markets: A Revisit," The Financial Review, Eastern Finance Association, vol. 34(2), pages 57-72, May.
    23. Sims, Christopher A & Stock, James H & Watson, Mark W, 1990. "Inference in Linear Time Series Models with Some Unit Roots," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 58(1), pages 113-144, January.
    24. Hatemi-J, Abdulnasser, 2002. "Money Supply and the Informational Efficiency of the Stock Market in Korea: Evidence from an Alternative Methodology," Journal of Economic Integration, Center for Economic Integration, Sejong University, vol. 17, pages 517-526.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:finana:v:19:y:2010:i:1:p:47-54. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Dana Niculescu). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.