Supporting solar power in renewables portfolio standards: Experience from the United States
Renewables portfolio standards (RPS) have become an increasingly popular option for encouraging the deployment of renewable electricity. It is a relatively new policy mechanism, however, and experience with its use is only beginning to emerge. One key concern is whether RPS policies offer adequate support to a wide range of renewable energy technologies and applications or whether, alternatively, they will favor a small number of the currently least-cost forms of renewable energy. This article documents the design of and early experience with state-level RPS programs in the United States that have been specifically tailored to encourage a wider diversity of renewable energy technologies, and solar energy in particular. As shown here, state-level RPS programs specifically designed to support solar have already proven to be an important driver for solar energy deployment, and those impacts are projected to build in the coming years. State experience in supporting solar energy with RPS programs is mixed, however, and full compliance with existing requirements has not been achieved. The comparative experiences described herein highlight the opportunities and challenges of applying an RPS to specifically support solar energy, as well as the importance of policy design details to ensuring that program goals are achieved.
If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Cory, Karlynn S. & Swezey, Blair G., 2007. "Renewable Portfolio Standards in the States: Balancing Goals and Rules," The Electricity Journal, Elsevier, vol. 20(4), pages 21-32, May.
- Ringel, Marc, 2006. "Fostering the use of renewable energies in the European Union: the race between feed-in tariffs and green certificates," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 31(1), pages 1-17.
- Nogee, Alan & Deyette, Jeff & Clemmer, Steve, 2007. "The Projected Impacts of a National Renewable Portfolio Standard," The Electricity Journal, Elsevier, vol. 20(4), pages 33-47, May.
- Falconett, Irina & Nagasaka, Ken, 2010. "Comparative analysis of support mechanisms for renewable energy technologies using probability distributions," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 35(6), pages 1135-1144.
- Ryan Wiser & Kevin Porter & Robert Grace, 2005. "Evaluating Experience with Renewables Portfolio Standards in the United States," Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, Springer, vol. 10(2), pages 237-263, April.
- D. Finon & Y. Perez, 2007.
"The social efficiency of instruments of promotion of renewable energies: A transaction-cost perspective,"
- Finon, Dominique & Perez, Yannick, 2007. "The social efficiency of instruments of promotion of renewable energies: A transaction-cost perspective," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 62(1), pages 77-92, April.
- Kildegaard, Arne, 2008. "Green certificate markets, the risk of over-investment, and the role of long-term contracts," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 36(9), pages 3413-3421, September.
- Agnolucci, Paolo, 2007. "The importance and the policy impacts of post-contractual opportunism and competition in the English and Welsh non-fossil fuel obligation," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(1), pages 475-486, January.
- Butler, Lucy & Neuhoff, Karsten, 2008.
"Comparison of feed-in tariff, quota and auction mechanisms to support wind power development,"
Elsevier, vol. 33(8), pages 1854-1867.
- Butler, L. & Neuhoff, K., 2005. "Comparison of Feed in Tariff, Quota and Auction Mechanisms to Support Wind Power Development," Cambridge Working Papers in Economics 0503, Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge.
- Voogt, M.H. & Uyterlinde, M.A., 2006. "Cost effects of international trade in meeting EU renewable electricity targets," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(3), pages 352-364, February.
- Verbruggen, Aviel, 2004. "Tradable green certificates in Flanders (Belgium)," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 32(2), pages 165-176, January.
- Lauber, Volkmar, 2004. "REFIT and RPS: options for a harmonised Community framework," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 32(12), pages 1405-1414, August.
- Chupka, Marc W., 2003. "Designing Effective Renewable Markets," The Electricity Journal, Elsevier, vol. 16(4), pages 46-57, May.
- Mitchell, C. & Bauknecht, D. & Connor, P.M., 2006. "Effectiveness through risk reduction: a comparison of the renewable obligation in England and Wales and the feed-in system in Germany," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(3), pages 297-305, February.
- Midttun, Atle & Gautesen, Kristian, 2007. "Feed in or certificates, competition or complementarity? Combining a static efficiency and a dynamic innovation perspective on the greening of the energy industry," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(3), pages 1419-1422, March.
- Burtraw, Dallas & Palmer, Karen, 2005.
"Cost-Effectiveness of Renewable Electricity Policies,"
dp-05-01, Resources For the Future.
- Palmer, Karen & Burtraw, Dallas, 2005. "Cost-effectiveness of renewable electricity policies," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 27(6), pages 873-894, November.
- Haddad, Brent M. & Jefferiss, Paul, 1999. "Forging Consensus on National Renewables Policy: The Renewables Portfolio Standard and the National Public Benefits Trust Fund," The Electricity Journal, Elsevier, vol. 12(2), pages 68-80, March.
- Bergek, Anna & Jacobsson, Staffan, 2010. "Are tradable green certificates a cost-efficient policy driving technical change or a rent-generating machine? Lessons from Sweden 2003-2008," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(3), pages 1255-1271, March.
- Menanteau, Philippe & Finon, Dominique & Lamy, Marie-Laure, 2003. "Prices versus quantities: choosing policies for promoting the development of renewable energy," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 31(8), pages 799-812, June.
- Rader, Nancy A. & Norgaard, Richard B., 1996. "Efficiency and sustainability in restructured electricity markets: the renewables portfolio standard," The Electricity Journal, Elsevier, vol. 9(6), pages 37-49, July.
- Kydes, Andy S., 2007. "Impacts of a renewable portfolio generation standard on US energy markets," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(2), pages 809-814, February.
- Meyer, Niels I., 2003. "European schemes for promoting renewables in liberalised markets," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 31(7), pages 665-676, June.
- Wiser, Ryan & Porter, Kevin & Bolinger, Mark & Raitt, Heather, 2005. "Does It Have To Be This Hard? Implementing the Nation's Most Complex Renewables Portfolio Standard," The Electricity Journal, Elsevier, vol. 18(8), pages 55-67, October.
- Yin, Haitao & Powers, Nicholas, 2010. "Do state renewable portfolio standards promote in-state renewable generation[glottal stop]," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(2), pages 1140-1149, February.
- Michaels, Robert J., 2008. "A National Renewable Portfolio Standard: Politically Correct, Economically Suspect," The Electricity Journal, Elsevier, vol. 21(3), pages 9-28, April.
- Meyer, Niels I. & Koefoed, Anne Louise, 2003. "Danish energy reform: policy implications for renewables," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 31(7), pages 597-607, June.
- Lipp, Judith, 2007. "Lessons for effective renewable electricity policy from Denmark, Germany and the United Kingdom," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(11), pages 5481-5495, November.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:enepol:v:39:y:2011:i:7:p:3894-3905. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Shamier, Wendy)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.