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Storage cost induced by a large substitution of nuclear by intermittent renewable energies: The French case


  • Percebois, Jacques
  • Pommeret, Stanislas


This paper explains some adverse effects due to a massive injection of renewables when electricity storage is not available, such as a fall of electricity prices on the spot market or a crowding-out effect for nuclear power stations due to the merit order logic. From the French experience, it presents a model that calculates the additional cost of electricity production when the share of nuclear generation is reduced to 50% instead of 72% today and when, in compensation, renewable energy (wind and solar) is stored either by batteries or by power-to-gas. The simulations minimize the cost of the energy mix by optimizing the electricity storage mix: batteries (daily storage) and Power-to-Gas/Gas-to-Power (seasonal storage). The paper also estimates the negative externalities of intermittent renewable energies that lie in between 44 and 107 €/MWh. It also examines the impact on the merit order when those negative externalities are accounted for. Finally, the simulation results lead us to provide some recommendations concerning R&D electricity storage policy and electricity mix fine tuning.

Suggested Citation

  • Percebois, Jacques & Pommeret, Stanislas, 2019. "Storage cost induced by a large substitution of nuclear by intermittent renewable energies: The French case," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 135(C).
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:enepol:v:135:y:2019:i:c:s0301421519306548
    DOI: 10.1016/j.enpol.2019.111067

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    4. Johan Augusto Bocanegra Cifuentes & Davide Borelli & Antonio Cammi & Guglielmo Lomonaco & Mario Misale, 2020. "Lattice Boltzmann Method Applied to Nuclear Reactors—A Systematic Literature Review," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 12(18), pages 1-37, September.
    5. Maria Juliana Suarrez Foréro & Frédéric Lantz & Pierre Nicolas & Pierre Geoffron, 2022. "The impact of Electric Vehicle fleets on the European Electricity Markets : Evidences from the German Passenger Car Fleet and Power Generation Sector," Working Papers hal-03609361, HAL.
    6. Sadhukhan, Jhuma, 2022. "Net zero electricity systems in global economies by life cycle assessment (LCA) considering ecosystem, health, monetization, and soil CO2 sequestration impacts," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 184(C), pages 960-974.
    7. Reyseliani, Nadhilah & Purwanto, Widodo Wahyu, 2021. "Pathway towards 100% renewable energy in Indonesia power system by 2050," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 176(C), pages 305-321.
    8. Jacques Percebois & Stanislas Pommeret, 2021. "What can be learned from the French partial nuclear shutdown of 2016?," ECONOMICS AND POLICY OF ENERGY AND THE ENVIRONMENT, FrancoAngeli Editore, vol. 2021(1), pages 5-19.
    9. Badr Eddine Lebrouhi & Eric Schall & Bilal Lamrani & Yassine Chaibi & Tarik Kousksou, 2022. "Energy Transition in France," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 14(10), pages 1-28, May.
    10. Badr Eddine Lebrouhi & Éric Schall & Bilal Lamrani & Yassine Chaibi & Tarik Kousksou, 2022. "Energy Transition in France," Post-Print hal-03716839, HAL.
    11. Percebois, Jacques & Pommeret, Stanislas, 2021. "Efficiency and dependence in the European electricity transition," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 154(C).

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