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Trade, income and the Baltic Dry Index

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  • Lin, Faqin
  • Sim, Nicholas C.S.

Abstract

Does trade improve the income levels of the poor and less developed nations? Focusing on the Least Developed Countries (LDCs) designated by the United Nations, we construct a new measure of trade cost, based on the Baltic Dry Index (BDI), as an instrument for trade. The BDI reflects the cost of utilizing dry bulk carriers, which are specially designed vessels for transporting primary goods internationally, where these goods dominate the output and export sectors of the LDCs. We find that a 1% expansion in trade raises GDP per capita by approximately 0.5% on average. This estimate is much larger than previously found in the literature and its quantitative significance emphasizes the importance of trade towards the economic development of low income countries.

Suggested Citation

  • Lin, Faqin & Sim, Nicholas C.S., 2013. "Trade, income and the Baltic Dry Index," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 59(C), pages 1-18.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:eecrev:v:59:y:2013:i:c:p:1-18
    DOI: 10.1016/j.euroecorev.2012.12.004
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Moyle, Brendan, 2014. "The raw and the carved: Shipping costs and ivory smuggling," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 107(C), pages 259-265.
    2. Sèna Kimm Gnangnon & Shishir Priyadarshi, 2016. "Export Product Diversification, Services Production and Exports in Least Developed Countries," Journal of International Commerce, Economics and Policy (JICEP), World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., vol. 7(03), pages 1-36, October.
    3. Fotis Papailias & Dimitrios D. Thomakos & Jiadong Liu, 2017. "The Baltic Dry Index: cyclicalities, forecasting and hedging strategies," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 52(1), pages 255-282, February.
    4. Ghiorghe Batrinca & Gianina Cojanu, 2013. "The Dynamics of the Dry Bulk Sub-Markets," Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics and Information Technology, ScientificPapers.org, vol. 3(6), pages 1-2, December.
    5. Cui Hu & Faqin Lin & Xiaosong Wang, 2016. "Learning from exporting in China," The Economics of Transition, The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, vol. 24(2), pages 299-334, April.
    6. Karen Poghosyan & Evžen Kočenda, 2016. "Determinants of export sophistication: Evidence from Monte Carlo simulations," Working Papers 360, Leibniz Institut für Ost- und Südosteuropaforschung (Institute for East and Southeast European Studies).
    7. repec:eee:chieco:v:45:y:2017:i:c:p:168-194 is not listed on IDEAS
    8. Lin, Faqin & Sim, Nicholas C.S., 2015. "Exports, HIV incidence and the Baltic Dry Index: Further evidence from sub-Saharan Africa," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 126(C), pages 35-39.
    9. Faqin Lin & Nicholas C.S. Sim & Ngoc Pham, 2015. "Child Mortality in the LDCs: The Role of Trade, Institutions and Environmental Quality," School of Economics Working Papers 2015-15, University of Adelaide, School of Economics.
    10. repec:spr:empeco:v:52:y:2017:i:4:d:10.1007_s00181-016-1103-7 is not listed on IDEAS
    11. Lin, Faqin & Fu, Dahai, 2016. "Trade, Institution Quality and Income Inequality," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 77(C), pages 129-142.
    12. Lin, Faqin & Sim, Nicholas C.S., 2014. "Baltic Dry Index and the democratic window of opportunity," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 42(1), pages 143-159.
    13. Lin, Faqin, 2015. "Learning by exporting effect in China revisited: An instrumental Approach," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 36(C), pages 1-13.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Economic development; International trade; Income; Baltic Dry Index; Instrument variable;

    JEL classification:

    • F14 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Empirical Studies of Trade
    • O11 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Macroeconomic Analyses of Economic Development
    • O19 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - International Linkages to Development; Role of International Organizations

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