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Convergence clubs in incomes across Indian states: Is there evidence of a neighbours’ effect?


  • Bandyopadhyay, Sanghamitra


I examine the distribution dynamics of incomes across Indian states using the entire income distribution. Unlike standard regression approaches, this approach allows us to identify specific distributional characteristics such as polarisation and stratification. The period between 1965 to 1997 exhibits the formation of two convergence clubs: one at 50% and the other at 125% of the national average income. Income disparities across the states declined over the 1960s and then increased from the 1970s to the 1990s. I use the distribution dynamics method to further investigate a neighbours’ effect, i.e., whether states that cluster together are neighbouring states. The evidence obtained suggests that there is none. While this initially comes across as an unusual result, it strongly suggests that India being a developing country is yet to develop the required networks across the states to generate spatial interactions.

Suggested Citation

  • Bandyopadhyay, Sanghamitra, 2012. "Convergence clubs in incomes across Indian states: Is there evidence of a neighbours’ effect?," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 116(3), pages 565-570.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:ecolet:v:116:y:2012:i:3:p:565-570 DOI: 10.1016/j.econlet.2012.05.050

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Andrade, Eduardo & Laurini, Marcio & Madalozzo, Regina & Valls Pereira, Pedro L., 2004. "Convergence clubs among Brazilian municipalities," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 83(2), pages 179-184, May.
    2. Quah, Danny, 1997. "Empirics for Growth and Distribution: Stratification, Polarization, and Convergence Clubs," CEPR Discussion Papers 1586, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    3. Krugman, Paul, 1991. "Increasing Returns and Economic Geography," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 99(3), pages 483-499, June.
    4. Esfandiar Maasoumi & Le Wang, 2008. "Economic Reform, Growth and Convergence in China," Econometrics Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 11(1), pages 128-154, March.
    5. Bandyopadhyay, Sanghamitra, 2001. "Twin Peaks: Convergence Empirics of Economic Growth across Indian States," WIDER Working Paper Series 142, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    6. Roberto Zelli & Maria Grazia Pittau, 2006. "Empirical evidence of income dynamics across EU regions," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 21(5), pages 605-628.
    7. Quah, Danny T, 1997. "Empirics for Growth and Distribution: Stratification, Polarization, and Convergence Clubs," Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, vol. 2(1), pages 27-59, March.
    8. Fotopoulos, Georgios, 2006. "Nonparametric analysis of regional income dynamics: The case of Greece," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 91(3), pages 450-457, June.
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    Cited by:

    1. Bajar, Sumedha & Rajeev, Meenakshi, 2015. "Impact of infrastructure provisioning on inequality: Evidence from India," Working Papers 337, Institute for Social and Economic Change, Bangalore.
    2. Arfat Ahmad Sofi & S. Raja Sethu Durai, 2015. "Club Convergence Across Indian States: An Empirical Analysis," Journal of Economic Development, Chung-Ang Unviersity, Department of Economics, vol. 40(4), pages 107-124, December.
    3. Arfat Ahmad Sofi & S. Raja Sethu Durai, 2016. "Income convergence in India: a nonparametric approach," Economic Change and Restructuring, Springer, vol. 49(1), pages 23-40, February.
    4. Parhi, Mamata & Diebolt, Claude & Mishra, Tapas & Gupta, Prashant, 2013. "Convergence dynamics of output: Do stochastic shocks and social polarization matter?," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 30(C), pages 42-51.

    More about this item


    Convergence clubs; Distribution dynamics; Neighbours’ effect; Panel data; India;

    JEL classification:

    • C14 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General - - - Semiparametric and Nonparametric Methods: General
    • O1 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development
    • O5 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economywide Country Studies


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