How do firms adjust director compensation?
This paper examines outside director compensation for a sample of 237 Fortune 500 firms over the 1998-2004 period. We document a trend towards fixed-value equity compensation and away from cash only and fixed-number equity compensation. Adjustments to director compensation are consistent with firms targeting a market level of compensation, and firms that deviate from their market wage symmetrically adjust compensation back toward the market level. We also document the relation between changes in compensation and changes in equity values, and find that upward adjustments begin sooner than downward adjustments. When equity values rise, we find virtually no immediate offset to director compensation. However, when equity values fall, fixed-number equity compensation is adjusted in the same period (by awarding more shares or options) to offset the loss of income by almost one-third. Thus, the magnitude of adjustments towards the market wage level is symmetric, but the timing is not.
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- David A. Becher & Terry L. Campbell II & Melissa B. Frye, 2005.
"Incentive Compensation for Bank Directors: The Impact of Deregulation,"
The Journal of Business,
University of Chicago Press, vol. 78(5), pages 1753-1778, September.
- David A. Becher & Terry L. Campbell II & Melissa B. Frye, 2003. "Incentive compensation for bank directors: the impact of deregulation," Proceedings 871, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
- Stephen F. O'Byrne, 1995. "Total Compensation Strategy," Journal of Applied Corporate Finance, Morgan Stanley, vol. 8(2), pages 77-86.
- Brian J. Hall, 1999. "The Design Of Multi-Year Stock Option Plans," Journal of Applied Corporate Finance, Morgan Stanley, vol. 12(2), pages 97-106.
- Core, John E. & Larcker, David F., 2002. "Performance consequences of mandatory increases in executive stock ownership," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 64(3), pages 317-340, June.
- Hayes, Rachel M. & Schaefer, Scott, 1999. "How much are differences in managerial ability worth?," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 27(2), pages 125-148, April.
- Brick, Ivan E. & Palmon, Oded & Wald, John K., 2006. "CEO compensation, director compensation, and firm performance: Evidence of cronyism?," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 12(3), pages 403-423, June.
- Ryan, Harley Jr. & Wiggins, Roy III, 2004. "Who is in whose pocket? Director compensation, board independence, and barriers to effective monitoring," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 73(3), pages 497-524, September.
- Linn, Scott C. & Park, Daniel, 2005. "Outside director compensation policy and the investment opportunity set," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 11(4), pages 680-715, September.
- Mason Gerety & Chun-Keung Hoi & Ashok Robin, 2001. "Do Shareholders Benefit from the Adoption of Incentive Pay for Directors?," Financial Management, Financial Management Association, vol. 30(4), Winter.
- Baysinger, Barry D & Zardkoohi, Asghar, 1986. "Technology, Residual Claimants, and Corporate Control," Journal of Law, Economics and Organization, Oxford University Press, vol. 2(2), pages 339-49, Fall.
- David Yermack, 2004. "Remuneration, Retention, and Reputation Incentives for Outside Directors," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 59(5), pages 2281-2308, October.
- Garvey, Gerald T. & Milbourn, Todd T., 2006. "Asymmetric benchmarking in compensation: Executives are rewarded for good luck but not penalized for bad," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 82(1), pages 197-225, October.
- Eliezer M. Fich & Anil Shivdasani, 2005. "The Impact of Stock-Option Compensation for Outside Directors on Firm Value," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 78(6), pages 2229-2254, November.
- Lucian A. Bebchuk & Yaniv Grinstein & Urs Peyer, 2006. "Lucky Directors," NBER Working Papers 12811, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Agrawal, Anup & Walkling, Ralph A, 1994. " Executive Careers and Compensation Surrounding Takeover Bids," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 49(3), pages 985-1014, July.
- Heron, Randall A. & Lie, Erik, 2007. "Does backdating explain the stock price pattern around executive stock option grants?," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 83(2), pages 271-295, February.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:corfin:v:14:y:2008:i:2:p:153-162. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Zhang, Lei)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.