IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/bushor/v54y2011i3p253-263.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Two hearts in three-quarter time: How to waltz the social media/viral marketing dance

Author

Listed:
  • Kaplan, Andreas M.
  • Haenlein, Michael

Abstract

The concept of viral marketing has been discussed in the literature for over 15 years, since Jeffrey Rayport first introduced the term in 1996. However, the more widespread use of social media has recently pushed this idea to a whole new level. We provide insight into the relationship between social media and viral marketing, and illustrate the six steps executives should take in order to dance the social media/viral marketing waltz. We define viral marketing as electronic word-of-mouth whereby some form of marketing message related to a company, brand, or product is transmitted in an exponentially growing way--often through the use of social media applications. We consider the three conditions that need to be fulfilled to create a viral marketing epidemic (i.e., giving the right message to the right messengers in the right environment) and present four different groups of social media viral marketing campaigns (nightmares, strokes-of-luck, homemade issues, and triumphs). We conclude with five points of caution that managers should heed when trying to launch their own viral marketing campaign.

Suggested Citation

  • Kaplan, Andreas M. & Haenlein, Michael, 2011. "Two hearts in three-quarter time: How to waltz the social media/viral marketing dance," Business Horizons, Elsevier, vol. 54(3), pages 253-263, May.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:bushor:v:54:y:2011:i:3:p:253-263
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0007-6813(11)00015-2
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Chrysanthos Dellarocas, 2006. "Strategic Manipulation of Internet Opinion Forums: Implications for Consumers and Firms," Management Science, INFORMS, pages 1577-1593.
    2. Phelps, Joseph E. & Lewis, Regina & Mobilio, Lynne & Perry, David & Raman, Niranjan, 2004. "Viral Marketing or Electronic Word-of-Mouth Advertising: Examining Consumer Responses and Motivations to Pass Along Email," Journal of Advertising Research, Cambridge University Press, vol. 44(04), pages 333-348, December.
    3. David Godes & Dina Mayzlin, 2004. "Using Online Conversations to Study Word-of-Mouth Communication," Marketing Science, INFORMS, pages 545-560.
    4. Dellarocas, Chrysanthos, 2003. "The Digitization of Word-of-mouth: Promise and Challenges of Online Feedback Mechanisms," Working papers 4296-03, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Sloan School of Management.
    5. Chrysanthos Dellarocas, 2003. "The Digitization of Word of Mouth: Promise and Challenges of Online Feedback Mechanisms," Management Science, INFORMS, pages 1407-1424.
    6. Dobele, Angela & Lindgreen, Adam & Beverland, Michael & Vanhamme, Joelle & van Wijk, Robert, 2007. "Why pass on viral messages? Because they connect emotionally," Business Horizons, Elsevier, pages 291-304.
    7. Kaplan, Andreas M. & Haenlein, Michael, 2010. "Users of the world, unite! The challenges and opportunities of Social Media," Business Horizons, Elsevier, pages 59-68.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. repec:zag:market:v:29:y:2017:i:7:p:39-57 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. Mira Rakic, Beba Rakic, 2015. "Viral Marketing," Ekonomika, Journal for Economic Theory and Practice and Social Issues 2014-04, „Ekonomika“ Society of Economists, Niš (Serbia).
    3. Mohammad Taleghani, 2015. "Factors affecting the electronic exchange of data through viral marketing (Case Study: E-Commerce Users in Rasht City-Northern of Iran)," Proceedings of International Academic Conferences 2504126, International Institute of Social and Economic Sciences.
    4. Kaplan, Andreas M., 2012. "If you love something, let it go mobile: Mobile marketing and mobile social media 4x4," Business Horizons, Elsevier, pages 129-139.
    5. Esmaeilpour Majid & Aram Farshad, 2016. "Investigating the impact of viral message appeal and message credibility on consumer attitude toward the brand," Management & Marketing, De Gruyter Open, pages 470-483.
    6. Scholz, Joachim & Smith, Andrew N., 2016. "Augmented reality: Designing immersive experiences that maximize consumer engagement," Business Horizons, Elsevier, pages 149-161.
    7. Kaplan, Andreas M. & Haenlein, Michael, 2016. "Higher education and the digital revolution: About MOOCs, SPOCs, social media, and the Cookie Monster," Business Horizons, Elsevier, pages 441-450.
    8. Sadaf Bashir & Uwe Matzat & Bert Sadowski, 2014. "The Adoption of Information and Communication Technologies in the Design Sector and their impact on Firm Performance: Evidence from the Dutch Design Sector," Working Papers 14-01, Eindhoven Center for Innovation Studies, revised Feb 2014.
    9. Mangold, W. Glynn & Smith, Katherine Taken, 2012. "Selling to Millennials with online reviews," Business Horizons, Elsevier, pages 141-153.
    10. Wu, Chih-Wen, 2016. "The performance impact of social media in the chain store industry," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, pages 5310-5316.
    11. repec:mgt:youmgt:v:15:y:2017:i:4:p:341-363 is not listed on IDEAS
    12. Kiljae Lee & Won-Yong Oh & Namhyeok Kim, 2013. "Social Media for Socially Responsible Firms: Analysis of Fortune 500’s Twitter Profiles and their CSR/CSIR Ratings," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, pages 791-806.
    13. Majid Esmaeilpour & Farshad Aram, 2016. "Investigating the impact of viral message appeal and message credibility on consumer attitude toward brand," International Journal of Business and Economic Sciences Applied Research (IJBESAR), Eastern Macedonia and Thrace Institute of Technology (EMATTECH), Kavala, Greece, vol. 9(3), pages 24-33, December.

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:bushor:v:54:y:2011:i:3:p:253-263. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Dana Niculescu). General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/bushor .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.