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Computational fluid dynamics simulation on open cell aluminium foams for Li-ion battery cooling system


  • Saw, Lip Huat
  • Ye, Yonghuang
  • Yew, Ming Chian
  • Chong, Wen Tong
  • Yew, Ming Kun
  • Ng, Tan Ching


Temperature is one of the factors which affect the power availability, driveability and durability of the battery pack. Folded fin and serpentine channel are commonly used to provide cooling for the battery pack. During the cooling process, fluid absorbed the heat generated along the flow direction and caused the reduction of the cooling capacity. Hence, downstream temperature is always higher than the upstream temperature. Inconsistent cooling effect will lead to high variation of temperature distribution and shorten the life expectancy of the battery pack. In this study, a battery module consists of three pieces of LiFePO4 pouch cell arranged side by side, and aluminium foam is sandwiched between two heat spreaders to form a cooling plate. Aluminium foams with different porosity and pores density were modelled to investigate the thermal performance and flow field numerically. Correlation of Nusselt number, permeability and resistance loss coefficient from the literature was extracted and used in the CFD simulation. From the simulation results, it is shown that 10 PPI aluminium foam with 0.918 porosity offered the highest thermal performance and lowest flow resistance. Hence, the optimized aluminium foam cooling plate can be used as a new type of cooling system for the battery pack.

Suggested Citation

  • Saw, Lip Huat & Ye, Yonghuang & Yew, Ming Chian & Chong, Wen Tong & Yew, Ming Kun & Ng, Tan Ching, 2017. "Computational fluid dynamics simulation on open cell aluminium foams for Li-ion battery cooling system," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 204(C), pages 1489-1499.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:appene:v:204:y:2017:i:c:p:1489-1499
    DOI: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2017.04.022

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Raijmakers, L.H.J. & Danilov, D.L. & Eichel, R.-A. & Notten, P.H.L., 2019. "A review on various temperature-indication methods for Li-ion batteries," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 240(C), pages 918-945.
    2. Tan, Weng Cheong & Saw, Lip Huat & Thiam, Hui San & Xuan, Jin & Cai, Zuansi & Yew, Ming Chian, 2018. "Overview of porous media/metal foam application in fuel cells and solar power systems," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 96(C), pages 181-197.
    3. Chen, Kai & Wu, Weixiong & Yuan, Fang & Chen, Lin & Wang, Shuangfeng, 2019. "Cooling efficiency improvement of air-cooled battery thermal management system through designing the flow pattern," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 167(C), pages 781-790.
    4. Ma, Mina & Wang, Yu & Duan, Qiangling & Wu, Tangqin & Sun, Jinhua & Wang, Qingsong, 2018. "Fault detection of the connection of lithium-ion power batteries in series for electric vehicles based on statistical analysis," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 164(C), pages 745-756.
    5. Xu, Xinhai & Li, Wenzheng & Xu, Ben & Qin, Jiang, 2019. "Numerical study on a water cooling system for prismatic LiFePO4 batteries at abused operating conditions," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 250(C), pages 404-412.
    6. Saw, Lip Huat & Poon, Hiew Mun & Thiam, Hui San & Cai, Zuansi & Chong, Wen Tong & Pambudi, Nugroho Agung & King, Yeong Jin, 2018. "Novel thermal management system using mist cooling for lithium-ion battery packs," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 223(C), pages 146-158.
    7. Naqiuddin, Nor Haziq & Saw, Lip Huat & Yew, Ming Chian & Yusof, Farazila & Poon, Hiew Mun & Cai, Zuansi & Thiam, Hui San, 2018. "Numerical investigation for optimizing segmented micro-channel heat sink by Taguchi-Grey method," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 222(C), pages 437-450.
    8. De Vita, Armando & Maheshwari, Arpit & Destro, Matteo & Santarelli, Massimo & Carello, Massimiliana, 2017. "Transient thermal analysis of a lithium-ion battery pack comparing different cooling solutions for automotive applications," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 206(C), pages 101-112.


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