IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

The social and other impacts of a cattle/crop innovation in Cambodia


  • Maxwell, T.W.
  • Songly, You
  • Ung, Boratana
  • Peou, Leakhna
  • Reid, Jenny


Agricultural innovations can create assets in poor rural communities but there are few studies of the wider, especially social, impact of such innovations. Farm families, previously engaged in “cut and carry” of wild forage, created time savings by their adoption of forage banks to feed cattle. What they did with this time was not known and this is the focus of this exploratory study as a result of the introduction of a “forage crop based production system” (FCP) in Cambodia. Based on interviews in two villages of farmers themselves and of teachers, the study confirmed that adopter farmers achieved considerable time savings, compared to non-adopters, resulting in agricultural, economic and cultural outcomes. Farmers reported better cattle production and grew cash crops while others developed local services. However, perhaps the major outcome was social, that is, their primary and secondary children’s schooling. Parents reported children experienced time savings converted into considerably better attendance and less lateness. Teachers reportedly agreed and added better attitudes and progress. The results were achieved through a greater understanding of the farmer’s relationship with project grass and legume growth and cattle management particularly during periods of feed deficit. Suggestions for further research are made.

Suggested Citation

  • Maxwell, T.W. & Songly, You & Ung, Boratana & Peou, Leakhna & Reid, Jenny, 2012. "The social and other impacts of a cattle/crop innovation in Cambodia," Agricultural Systems, Elsevier, vol. 107(C), pages 83-91.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:agisys:v:107:y:2012:i:c:p:83-91
    DOI: 10.1016/j.agsy.2011.10.008

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Heady, Christopher, 2003. "The Effect of Child Labor on Learning Achievement," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 31(2), pages 385-398, February.
    2. Walker, Tom & Ryan, Jim & Kelley, Tim, 2010. "Impact Assessment of Policy-Oriented International Agricultural Research: Evidence and Insights from Case Studies," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 38(10), pages 1453-1461, October.
    3. World Bank, 2005. "Cambodia : Quality Basic Education for All," World Bank Other Operational Studies 8643, The World Bank.
    4. Paris, Thelma R., 2002. "Crop-animal systems in Asia: socio-economic benefits and impacts on rural livelihoods," Agricultural Systems, Elsevier, vol. 71(1-2), pages 147-168.
    5. Devendra, C. & Sevilla, C. C., 2002. "Availability and use of feed resources in crop-animal systems in Asia," Agricultural Systems, Elsevier, vol. 71(1-2), pages 59-73.
    6. Chae‐Young Kim, 2011. "Children's work and the life skills education policy in Cambodia," Journal of International Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 23(2), pages 262-273, March.
    7. Thomas, D. & Zerbini, E. & Parthasarathy Rao, P. & Vaidyanathan, A., 2002. "Increasing animal productivity on small mixed farms in South Asia: a systems perspective," Agricultural Systems, Elsevier, vol. 71(1-2), pages 41-57.
    8. Horton, Douglas & Mackay, Ronald, 2003. "Using evaluation to enhance institutional learning and change: recent experiences with agricultural research and development," Agricultural Systems, Elsevier, vol. 78(2), pages 127-142, November.
    9. Stur, W. W. & Horne, P. M. & Gabunada Jr., F. A. & Phengsavanh, P. & Kerridge, P. C., 2002. "Forage options for smallholder crop-animal systems in Southeast Asia: working with farmers to find solutions," Agricultural Systems, Elsevier, vol. 71(1-2), pages 75-98.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Stür, Werner & Khanh, Truong Tan & Duncan, Alan, 2016. "Transformation of smallholder beef-cattle production in Vietnam," IFPRI book chapters,in: Innovation for inclusive value-chain development: Successes and challenges, chapter 6, pages 201-228 International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    2. O.M. Joffre & S.A. Castine & M.J. Phillips & S. Senaratna Sellamuttu & D. Chandrabalan & P. Cohen, 2017. "Increasing productivity and improving livelihoods in aquatic agricultural systems: a review of interventions," Food Security: The Science, Sociology and Economics of Food Production and Access to Food, Springer;The International Society for Plant Pathology, vol. 9(1), pages 39-60, February.


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:agisys:v:107:y:2012:i:c:p:83-91. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Dana Niculescu). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.