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Lohnsubventionen in Deutschland: wie sieht eine optimale Evaluierungsstrategie aus?

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  • Reinhard Hujer
  • Marco Caliendo

Abstract

Lohnsubventionen werden als eine relativ flexible und effiziente Methode gesehen, um die Nachfrage nach gering qualifizierten Arbeitnehmern zu erhöhen und ihre Einkommens- und Beschäftigungschancen zu verbessern. Auch in Deutschland gewinnt die Förderung durch dieses Instrument aktiver Arbeitsmarktpolitik einerseits zunehmend an Bedeutung, wird andererseits aber auch kritisiert. Neben dem aus humankapitaltheoretischer Sicht fehlenden Weiterbildungsaspekt steht vor allem das Auftreten von Mitnahme-, Substitutions- und Verdrängungseffekten im Mittelpunkt der Kritik. Diese Effekte konterkarieren die erhoffte positive Wirkung von Lohnsubventionen und sind in der Regel schwer zu messen. Wir skizzieren in diesem Papier eine dreistufige Evaluierungsstrategie, bei der zunächst auf mikroökonomischer Ebene die Wirkung der Subvention auf den geförderten Arbeitnehmer untersucht wird. Anschließend steht die Arbeitsnachfrage im Vordergrund des Interesses, um Mitnahme- und Substitutionseffekte innerhalb eines Unternehmens zu ermitteln, bevor die Effekte auf gesamtwirtschaftlicher Ebene analysiert werden sollen. Die umfassende empirische Evaluation von Lohnsubventionen in Deutschland steht noch aus, da die dafür notwendigen Daten noch nicht zur Verfügung stehen. Sobald dies der Fall ist, kann eine Bewertung auf den drei angesprochenen Ebenen erfolgen.

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  • Reinhard Hujer & Marco Caliendo, 2003. "Lohnsubventionen in Deutschland: wie sieht eine optimale Evaluierungsstrategie aus?," Vierteljahrshefte zur Wirtschaftsforschung / Quarterly Journal of Economic Research, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research, vol. 72(1), pages 109-123.
  • Handle: RePEc:diw:diwvjh:72-10-9
    DOI: 10.3790/vjh.72.1.109
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    Cited by:

    1. Berthold, Norbert & Coban, Mustafa, 2013. "Mini- und Midijobs in Deutschland: Lohnsubventionierung ohne Beschäftigungseffekte?," Discussion Paper Series 119, Julius Maximilian University of Würzburg, Chair of Economic Order and Social Policy.
    2. Breiding, Torsten, 2006. "Die Arbeitslosenversicherung in Deutschland – Beitrag zur Bekämpfung oder Ursache von Arbeitslosigkeit [The unemployment insurance in Germany - does it cause or does it help to overcome unemploymen," MPRA Paper 20999, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    3. Caliendo, Marco & Steiner, Viktor, 2005. "Aktive Arbeitsmarktpolitik in Deutschland : Bestandsaufnahme und Bewertung der mikroökonomischen Evaluationsergebnisse (Active labour market policy in Germany * review ans assessment of the microecono," Zeitschrift für ArbeitsmarktForschung - Journal for Labour Market Research, Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany], vol. 38(2/3), pages 396-418.
    4. Rainer Eppel & Helmut Mahringer, 2012. "Do wage subsidies work in boosting economic inclusion? Evidence on e," EcoMod2012 4065, EcoMod.
    5. Sarah Bernhard & Ursula Jaenichen & Gesine Stephan, 2006. "Eingliederungszuschüsse bei Einarbeitung und erschwerter Vermittlung: Matching-Analysen auf der Basis von Prozessdaten," Vierteljahrshefte zur Wirtschaftsforschung / Quarterly Journal of Economic Research, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research, vol. 75(3), pages 67-84.
    6. Hermann Buslei & Viktor Steiner, 2003. "Anreizwirkungen von Lohnsubventionen: welche Bedeutung haben sie für die aktuelle Reformdiskussion?," Vierteljahrshefte zur Wirtschaftsforschung / Quarterly Journal of Economic Research, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research, vol. 72(1), pages 94-108.
    7. Andreas Ammermüller & Bernhard Boockmann & Michael Maier & Thomas Zwick, 2006. "Eingliederungszuschüsse und Entgeltsicherung für Ältere: Analysen auf Basis natürlicher Experimente," Vierteljahrshefte zur Wirtschaftsforschung / Quarterly Journal of Economic Research, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research, vol. 75(3), pages 49-66.
    8. Hans-Werner Sinn & Christian Holzner & Wolfgang Meister & Wolfgang Ochel & Martin Werding, 2002. "Aktivierende Sozialhilfe - Ein Weg zu mehr Beschäftigung und Wachstum," ifo Schnelldienst, ifo Institute - Leibniz Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich, vol. 55(09), pages 03-52, May.
    9. Berthold Norbert & Coban Mustafa, 2013. "Mini- und Midijobs in Deutschland: Lohnsubventionierung ohne Beschäftigungseffekte? / Mini- and Midi-Jobs in Germany: Do Wage Subsidies have an Effect on Employment?," ORDO. Jahrbuch für die Ordnung von Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft, De Gruyter, vol. 64(1), pages 289-324, January.

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