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The Effects of the Structural Adjustment Program on Deforestation in Ghana


  • Benhin, J.K.A.
  • Barbier, E.B.


This paper is a theoretical and empirical investigation into the impact of the structural adjustment program (SAP) on forest loss in Ghana between the period 1965–95. An optimal control model is used to derive estimable reduced form equations for forest loss, cocoa land, maize land and timber production, which are in turn functions of mainly input and output prices. Piecewise linear and switching regression approaches are used to distinguish between the influence of the post from the pre-adjustment policy impacts on forest land use. The overall results show that cocoa land expansion and timber production, but not maize land expansion, are significant causes of forest loss in Ghana. However, the impact on forest loss in the post-adjustment period was reduced. Changes in the relative output and input prices due to the SAP may have played a significant role in the reduced impact of agricultural and timber related deforestation in the post-adjustment period.

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  • Benhin, J.K.A. & Barbier, E.B., 2001. "The Effects of the Structural Adjustment Program on Deforestation in Ghana," Agricultural and Resource Economics Review, Cambridge University Press, vol. 30(1), pages 66-80, April.
  • Handle: RePEc:cup:agrerw:v:30:y:2001:i:01:p:66-80_00

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Edward B. Barbier & Joanne C. Burgess, 1997. "The Economics of Tropical Forest Land Use Options," Land Economics, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 73(2), pages 174-195.
    2. Deacon Robert T., 1995. "Assessing the Relationship between Government Policy and Deforestation," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 28(1), pages 1-18, January.
    3. Cropper, Maureen & Griffiths, Charles, 1994. "The Interaction of Population Growth and Environmental Quality," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 84(2), pages 250-254, May.
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    Cited by:

    1. Copeland, Brian R., 2005. "Policy Endogeneity and the Effects of Trade on the Environment," Agricultural and Resource Economics Review, Northeastern Agricultural and Resource Economics Association, vol. 34(1), pages 1-15, April.
    2. Barbier, Edward B., 2000. "Links between economic liberalization and rural resource degradation in the developing regions," Agricultural Economics, Blackwell, vol. 23(3), pages 299-310, September.
    3. Daniel S. Akoto & Manfred Denich & Samuel T. Partey & Oliver Frith & Michael Kwaku & Alex A. Mensah & Christian Borgemeister, 2018. "Socioeconomic Indicators of Bamboo Use for Agroforestry Development in the Dry Semi-Deciduous Forest Zone of Ghana," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 10(7), pages 1-13, July.
    4. Barbier,Edward B., 2007. "Natural Resources and Economic Development," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521706513.
    5. James Benhin & Edward Barbier, 2004. "Structural Adjustment Programme, Deforestation and Biodiversity Loss in Ghana," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 27(3), pages 337-366, March.

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