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Commercial Agriculture in Metropolitan Areas: Economics and Regulatory Issues


  • Gardner, Bruce L.


Metropolitan agriculture is economically important, especially in the Northeast. While faced with substantial economic and regulatory obstacles, commercial farming in urban areas is surviving and even prospering. In terms of standard models of agriculture in economic development, this is a puzzle. But more detailed, spatial economic models indicate how labor-intensive production of perishable commodities in urbanized areas can make economic sense, especially when coupled with environmental amenities that farming generates for nonfarm people. At the same time, environmental disamenities of agriculture are larger in densely populated areas. The political economy outcomes have tended to be favorable to continued farming, albeit with increased regulation. Nonetheless, many questions remain about the dynamics of agricultural adjustment to urbanization, and the possible steady-state mix of farm and nonfarm activities.

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  • Gardner, Bruce L., 1994. "Commercial Agriculture in Metropolitan Areas: Economics and Regulatory Issues," Agricultural and Resource Economics Review, Cambridge University Press, vol. 23(1), pages 100-109, April.
  • Handle: RePEc:cup:agrerw:v:23:y:1994:i:01:p:100-109_00

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Rigoberto A. Lopez & Farhed A. Shah & Marilyn A. Altobello, 1994. "Amenity Benefits and the Optimal Allocation of Land," Land Economics, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 70(1), pages 53-62.
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    1. Bernd Pölling & Marcus Mergenthaler, 2017. "The Location Matters: Determinants for “Deepening” and “Broadening” Diversification Strategies in Ruhr Metropolis’ Urban Farming," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 9(7), pages 1-19, July.
    2. Walid Oueslati & Julien Salanié & Junjie Wu, 2014. "Urbanization and Agricultural Structural Adjustments: Some Lessons from European Cities," Working Papers halshs-01098773, HAL.
    3. Lynch, Lori & Duke, Joshua M., 2007. "Economic Benefits of Farmland Preservation: Evidence from the United States," Working Papers 7342, University of Maryland, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics.
    4. Lopez, Rigoberto A. & Altobello, Marilyn A. & Shah, Farhed A., 1994. "Amenity Benefits and Public Policy: An Application to the Connecticut Dairy Sector," Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 26(2), pages 485-496, December.
    5. Bernd Pölling, 2016. "Comparison of Farm Structures, Success Factors, Obstacles, Clients’ Expectations and Policy Wishes of Urban Farming’s Main Business Models in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 8(5), pages 1-23, May.
    6. Coisnon, Thomas & Oueslati, Walid & Salanié, Julien, 2014. "Urban sprawl occurrence under spatially varying agricultural amenities," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 44(C), pages 38-49.
    7. Neda Tiraieyari & Roya Karami & Robert M. Ricard & Mohammad Badsar, 2019. "Influences on the Implementation of Community Urban Agriculture: Insights from Agricultural Professionals," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 11(5), pages 1-18, March.
    8. Lynch, Lori, 2003. "Do Agricultural Preservation Programs And Preferential Property Tax Programs Affect Farmland Conversion?," 2003 Annual meeting, July 27-30, Montreal, Canada 22100, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
    9. Smith, Katherine Reichelderfer, 1994. "Agroenvironmental Economic Research for the 21st Century: Anticipating and Responding to Change," Agricultural and Resource Economics Review, Cambridge University Press, vol. 23(2), pages 111-119, October.
    10. Xiangping Liu & Lori Lynch, 2011. "Do Agricultural Land Preservation Programs Reduce Farmland Loss? Evidence from a Propensity Score Matching Estimator," Land Economics, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 87(2), pages 183-201.
    11. Cheng, Mei-luan & Gomez, Miguel I. & Bills, Nelson L., 2011. "Urban Agglomeration Economies in the U.S. Greenhouse and Nursery Production," Working Papers 126611, Cornell University, Department of Applied Economics and Management.
    12. Lynch, Lori & Carpenter, Janet, 2002. "Does The Farm Sector Have A Critical Mass?," Working Papers 28552, University of Maryland, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics.
    13. Liu, Xiangping & Lynch, Lori, 2006. "Do Agricultural Preservation Programs Affect Farmland Conversion? Evidence from a Propensity Score Matching Estimator," Working Papers 28569, University of Maryland, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics.
    14. repec:gam:jsusta:v:8:y:2016:i:5:p:446:d:69503 is not listed on IDEAS
    15. Joshua Duke & Lori Lynch, 2007. "Gauging support for innovative farmland preservation techniques," Policy Sciences, Springer;Society of Policy Sciences, vol. 40(2), pages 123-155, June.

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