Trade Liberalization, Standards and Protection
As conventional trade barriers fall, nations may increasingly resort to product standards to protect domestic industries. While ostensibly protecting their citizens from the environmental and health side-effects of a particular product, countries could enact standards that are facially-neutral, but impose greater compliance costs on foreign producers. This paper examines the impact of trade liberalization on standard setting by using a two-country Cournot duopoly model in which the Domestic government imposes a standard to mitigate a consumption externality. The standard increases production costs for both Domestic and Foreign firms, especially for the latter. The paper finds that one cannot make an unequivocal connection between falling tariffs and subsidies and rising standards. If the initial tariffs or subsidies are prohibitive, reducing subsidies and tariffs to allow minimal import penetration will generally create incentives for the Domestic government to impose higher standards. If the ex ante tariffs are not prohibitive, however, it is only optimal for the government to raise standards following tariff cuts if (i) tariff revenues are an important component of the welfare calculus and the ex ante tariff rate is high, or (ii) the standard's effect on the per unit externality is large. Likewise, if the initial subsidies are small enough to allow imports the government should only raise standards following subsidy reductions if the per unit externality is substantial, or the standard's impact on the per unit externality is large.
If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
Volume (Year): 10 (2010)
Issue (Month): 1 (July)
|Contact details of provider:|| Web page: https://www.degruyter.com|
|Order Information:||Web: https://www.degruyter.com/view/j/bejeap|
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Analysis, A Welfare & Das, Satya P. & Donnenfeld, Shabtai, 1987. "Trade policy and its impact on quality of imports," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 23(1-2), pages 77-95, August.
- Nancy E. Bockstael, 1984. "The Welfare Implications of Minimum Quality Standards," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 66(4), pages 466-471.
- Dawn D. Thilmany & Christopher B. Barrett, 1997. "Regulatory Barriers in an Integrating World Food Market," Review of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 19(1), pages 91-107.
- Das, Satya P. & Donnenfeld, Shabtai, 1989. "Oligopolistic competition and international trade : Quantity and quality restrictions," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 27(3-4), pages 299-318, November.
- Walz, Uwe & Wellisch, Dietmar, 1997. "Is free trade in the interest of exporting countries when there is ecological dumping?," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 66(2), pages 275-291, November.
- Fischer, Ronald & Serra, Pablo, 2000.
"Standards and protection,"
Journal of International Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 52(2), pages 377-400, December.
- Ronald Fischer & Pablo Serra, 1998. "Standards and Protection," Documentos de Trabajo 45, Centro de Economía Aplicada, Universidad de Chile.
- Georges Tanguay, 2001. "Strategic Environmental Policies under International Duopolistic Competition," International Tax and Public Finance, Springer;International Institute of Public Finance, vol. 8(5), pages 793-811, November.
- Otsuki, Tsunehiro & Wilson, John S. & Sewadeh, Mirvat, 2001. "Saving two in a billion: : quantifying the trade effect of European food safety standards on African exports," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 26(5), pages 495-514, October.
- Gandal, Neil & Shy, Oz, 2001. "Standardization policy and international trade," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 53(2), pages 363-383, April.
- Gandal, N. & Shy, O., 1996. "Standardization Policy and International Trade," Papers 12-96, Tel Aviv - the Sackler Institute of Economic Studies.
- Henson, Spencer & Loader, Rupert, 2001. "Barriers to Agricultural Exports from Developing Countries: The Role of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Requirements," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 29(1), pages 85-102, January.
- Brian R. Copeland & M. Scott Taylor, 1995. "Trade and the Environment: A Partial Synthesis," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 77(3), pages 765-771.
- Simon GB Cowan & Simon Cowan, 2004. "Demand shifts and imperfect competition," Economics Series Working Papers 188, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
- Jonathan Eaton & Gene M. Grossman, 1986. "Optimal Trade and Industrial Policy Under Oligopoly," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 101(2), pages 383-406.
- Jonathan Eaton & Gene M. Grossman, 1983. "Optimal Trade and Industrial Policy Under Oligopoly," NBER Working Papers 1236, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Pierpaolo Battigalli & Giovanni Maggi, 2003. "International agreements on product standard: an incomplete contracting theory," NBER Working Papers 9533, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Pierpaolo Battigalli & Giovanni Maggi, 2003. "International agreements on product standards: an incomplete-contracting theory," Working Papers 229, IGIER (Innocenzo Gasparini Institute for Economic Research), Bocconi University.
- Boom, Anette, 1995. "Asymmetric International Minimum Quality Standards and Vertical Differentiation," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 43(1), pages 101-119, March. Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)